Design and Cultural Identity - Miguel Torga, Poetic Map

Identidade cultural e intelectual - Miguel Torga, Mapa Poético

Costa, M.

CIAUD - Centro de investigação em Arquitetura, Urbanismo e Design

Retirado de:

RESUMO: O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar um conjunto de reflexões sobre a importância do Design na promoção da identidade cultural de um país, através da identificação, desenvolvimento e promoção de itinerários culturais poéticos, a fim de proporcionar experiências físicas e emocionais, promovendo A identificação das pessoas com o seu património, através de métodos participativos, estabelecendo pontes efectivas entre cidadãos e visitantes, sem negligenciar as questões estéticas e funcionais.
Neste estudo de caso, exploramos a ideia de realizar um percurso que se estende de norte a sul de Portugal, que coloca em diálogo a poesia com as particularidades territoriais. Este estudo é baseado na poesia de Miguel Torga publicada no Diário, onde foram identificados 635 poemas; Estes poemas revelam emoções e percepções de lugares e ambientes adicionando dimensões intangíveis à paisagem.
Promover e revelar a identidade cultural única das pessoas, nação ou região é uma necessidade crescente em nossa sociedade, fortemente marcada pelo processo de globalização cultural. Conscientes destas necessidades sociais, os designers podem agir ligando pessoas e culturas, preservando as especificidades culturais locais, através da mediação cultural e desenvolvendo mecanismos para facilitar o seu reconhecimento e promoção, com base na interpretação e transferência de informação através de dinâmicas participativas.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Design, Identidade Cultural, Miguel Torga, Poesia, Itinerários.

ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to present a set of reflections on the importance of Design in promoting cultural identity of a country, through the identification, development and promotion of poetic cultural itineraries in order to provide physical and emotional experiences, and thus promote the identification of the people with their heritage, by participatory methods, establishing effective bridges between citizens and visitors, without neglecting the aesthetic and functional issues.

In this case study, we explore the idea of realizing one route extending from north to south of Portugal, which put in dialogue poetry with the particular territorial features. This study is based on Miguel Torga poetry published in “Diário”, where 635 poems were identified; these poems reveal emotions and perceptions from places and ambiences adding intangible dimensions to the landscape.

To promote and reveal the unique cultural identity of people, nation or region is an actual growing need in our society, which is strongly marked by the cultural globalization process. Aware of these social needs, designers can act linking people and culture, preserving local cultural specificities, through cultural mediation and by developing mechanisms to facilitate its recognition and promotion, based on interpretation and transfer of information via participative dynamics.


KEYWORDS: Design, Cultural Identity, Miguel Torga, Poetry, Itineraries.

1. Introduction

This article is part of a extended research project, aiming to expand a set of poetic routes, previously developed for the city of Lisbon in the context of a PhD in Design, initiating the development of a Poetic Map of Mainland Portugal. This will be developed with poetry that was written and published since the early twentieth century to the present, whose reference or inspiration is the country. This mapping will be developed in the form of cultural itineraries, structured and communicated through design. It will be based on case studies where we’ll identify and systematize the poetic authors work, accepted as marks on our collective cultural route, where communication design will have a key role in the communication and enjoyment of poetry as Intangible Heritage.

The case study presented here, focuses on the poetic work of Miguel Torga, exploring the idea of achieving an itinerary communicated through design and whose development and identification of places were based on the development and systematization of information in diagrams. In these we analyse the territorial incidence of poetry written by Miguel Torga that was published in “Diário” (Vols. I to XVI) with a corpus of six hundred thirty-five poems, written between 1934 and 1993. This corpus reveals the importance of poetry in the work of Torga, as well as the watchful eye of the poet on the Portuguese territory, as there is no single district over which the author has not written at least one poem.

The work of Miguel Torga is an example of the extensive poetic production of the Portuguese, and whose tradition dates back to a distant past, leads us to defend poetry as a particular form of manifestation of being Portuguese, where features like melancholy and an idealistic temperament, articulate with the dream and the necessity to externalize that feeling, that is expressed in poetic form, creating this way, a valuable identity of our culture and an integral part of our intangible cultural heritage.

The intervention of Communication Design in cultural mediation process is a reality and a necessity of contemporary society and despite the importance assumed by the information and communication technologies, the physical experience continues to assert itself decisive in cognitive processes and enjoyment of different types of heritage, able through it to explore sensory dimensions, that cultural itineraries facilitate, by promoting dialogue between the material heritage, monuments, buildings or landscapes, with the intangible dimensions where poetry emphasizes through emotion territorial experiences and ambiances.

The defence of a people’s cultural identity inevitably focuses on promoting its Intangible Heritage and this is another challenge for designers, due its interdisciplinary nature requires a global and transdisciplinary vision, as well as the ability to make connections between the subjective and objective dimensions. This is actually the part of the designer's work, which always transform the intangible dimensions (ideas, concepts, etc.), into visual images or forms that become intelligible and accessible to citizens


2. Poetry And Cultural Identity

Literature has a great impact in the dissemination of cultural characteristics of each people. In the history of Portuguese literature, poetry assumes great importance. For the Portuguese poetic expression is an ancient tradition. According Simões, (1955) if the age of discoveries is the cornerstone of the history of our civilization, poetry is like building dome in the history of our culture, and we also believe that "the Portuguese have (...) a rapturous poetic and contemplative background different from other Latin people." (DIAS, 990, p. 146)

It was largely through poetry that the Portuguese culture was assumed and projected to the world. The first works identified in Portuguese literature are compiled in the “Cancioneiro da Ajuda " (Songbook of Ajuda) and being "the oldest known troubadour of the cancioneiros is João Soares de Paiva, born about 1140, (...). This places the beginning of the known Portuguese written literature at the start of the twelfth century" (Saraiva and Lopes, 2010, p: 47). Since then, a long way has been travelled, with notable personalities as protagonists: D. Dinis (1261-1325), Gil Vicente (1465-1536), Luís de Camões (1524/5 - 1580), Francisco Rodrigues Lobo (1579-1621), Cesário Verde (1855-1886), Fernando Pessoa (1888-1935), as well as many others, modern and contemporary, with which our poetic heritage, kept being enriched and consolidated, as is the case of Miguel Torga, that we here introduce.

Poetry is opposed to a Heritage commonly classified as unique and picturesque, but so often revealed in images of a decaying country, sad and poor, referring us to an economic poverty, social and cultural, probably attractive in terms of tourism, but with which individuals committed to a more scholarly context of culture and more cosmopolitan and contemporary dynamics are not identified and via which do not like to be recognized.

The cultural homogenization process needs to be countered, through the culturally significant heritage identification of different social and cultural groups, one heritage that values us as a people of a universal world, against the idea and the promotion of a conventional picturesque that is inevitably associated with poverty and stagnation in time.

The need to identify and encourage the promotion of different types of heritage is in line with the thinking of Ascher (2001) who alludes to the fact, that the multiplicity of choices, with which individuals are confronted, vary depending on the opportunities, giving rise to increasingly different life profiles and breaking up the typologies of life in ever smaller groups, and today must think about the uniqueness of the individual. "The multiplicity of options and individual custom-made (the one to one) are the nec plus ultra of industry and services" (Ascher, 2001, p40)

It is in this sense that we consider poetry as privileged vehicle of dissemination of the cultural idiosyncrasies of our people, which by way of representations and references, allows the creation of mental images that convey experiences, feelings and emotions, that we transform into knowledge.

Morin (1997: p 62) states that there are always two kinds of language within a language, corresponding to the two proper states of being human (Homo sapiens and also Homo Demens). One is the prosaic language, rational, empirical, practical and technical - the denotative language; the second is a more connotative, symbolic, metaphorical magic language. These correspond to two existing states in humans. At first, the prosaic state, we strive to understand and reason. This state corresponds to the practical, technical and material activities that exist in today's society. The second corresponds to the poetic state. "The poetic state can be given by dancing, singing, worshiping, ceremonies and, of course, can be given by the poem"  (Morin, 1997 p: 24).

Facing poetry written as Intangible Heritage, revealed as a language linked to the imaginary and the identity of the Portuguese people, expressing itself in the intangibility of its content, emotions and feelings it raises, reflects not only the character of the Portuguese, but also the look of poets over the territory.

The Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage, promulgated by UNESCO, considers that:

The “intangible cultural heritage” means the practices, representations, expressions, knowledge, skills – as well as the instruments, objects, artifacts and cultural spaces associated therewith – that communities, groups and, in some cases, individuals recognize as part of their cultural heritage. This intangible cultural heritage, transmitted from generation to generation, is constantly recreated by communities and groups in response to their environment, their interaction with nature and their history, and provides them with a sense of identity and continuity, thus promoting respect for cultural diversity and human creativity. For the purposes of this Convention, consideration will be given solely to such intangible cultural heritage as is compatible with existing international human rights instruments, as well as with the requirements of mutual respect among communities, groups and individuals, and of sustainable development.”

The “intangible cultural heritage”, as defined in paragraph 1 above, is manifested inter alia in the following domains:
(a) oral traditions and expressions, including language as a vehicle of the intangible cultural heritage; amount others. (UNESCO 2003)

For these reasons, we argue that poetry is part of our cultural identity, inextricably linked to our mythical and symbolic universe that stated through language, heritage that originates and unifies the identity of people and it is through the symbolic representations and respective meanings that people will build their individual and collective memories.

According to Costa ML (2013: 48), the memories are decisive in how we live and experience the present. Our individual memories allow us to understand the world. The more rich and structured are our memories, the better our ability to live and overcome difficulties. Thus, the importance given to the past, as opposed to privilege previously given to the future, it is a reality of contemporary society, as is the recognition of the urgency of preserving memories.

"The present world in a context which causally links the events and objects of the past and, therefore, takes as reference events and objects that we are not living in the present. And we live our present differently according to different pasts that we can relate to." (Connerton 1999 p: 2)

Memories are part of our identity, of their construction and deconstruction, enable us to choose what we want and what we reject, establish relations of belonging and integration in certain groups and rejection and exclusion from others. Preserving Memories means defending identities because neither memories nor identities are fixed, they are open to change and, through the process of globalization, are increasingly less anchored to a geographical place.

Like the individual also every location and its spirit live of memories, from the recurrent and individual to the historical and cultural. The "Declaration of Quebec City, on the preservation of Spiritu loci" refers to the importance of keeping in dialogue the different types of Heritage:

"The spirit of the place is defined as the tangible (buildings, sites, landscapes, routes, objects) and intangible (memories, narratives, written documents, rituals, festivals, traditional knowledge, values, textures, colours, odours, etc.) that is, the physical and spiritual elements that give meaning, emotion and mystery to the place "(ICOMOS 2011). It also states that the spirit of the place depends on participatory dynamics by all citizens, it is through these that the Heritage acquires meaning and symbolic value. This symbolic value that Heritage may have, representative of a particular culture makes sense and is particularly important in a globalized society, where integration and cultural identification, depends on a variety of choices, being life experience anchored territorially important to the lives of cities and their inhabitants reflected in the spirit of the place.

The needs identified by ICOMOS, the existence of a close and dynamic relationship between the different types of heritage and those with citizens, as well as the importance of living experience anchored territorially, come to support these proposed itineraries here introduced as a form of assuming poetry as Intangible Heritage, part of the Portuguese cultural identity, differentiating factor and promoter of cultural diversity.



3. Design Connection Between Poetry and Territory

3.1. Poetry and territorial anchorage

"To make sense, the word needs the text that is its own context and the text needs the context in which it states" The words that describe Portugal, are texts that are assumed in different categories: in history and the stories, legends, literature and poetry. Poetry needs context in which it states, ie the geographical territory that inspired poets, and that it returns through itineraries in order to be enjoyed by the largest possible number of citizens. The itineraries and its representation (maps), constitute a possibility to structure information and communicate complex ideas, conveying accessible mode content, enabling fast and efficient reading, thus giving the viewer the greatest number of suggestions in a smaller space, both temporal and physical and with minimal media waste, as advocated by TUFTE (1982).

Poetry has long been stored in books, and still is, accessible only to a restricted audience. However, the current cultural practices lead to rethink this strategy, verifying, by institutions, increasing attempts and approach practices among citizens and heritage, a trend that responds to the social need for democratization of culture, and for these reasons argue that poetry: "instead of saved to the seven keys in the text of the enclosure before open to the existence and to the world, that does not sacrifice but, on the contrary, mingle them. Poetry that can not be imposed "on the action front", be sure to be able to give rhythm to the common existence in order to take it up to the living and true to you. Poetry whose task would be to stretch the four wires that make the rhythmic and semantic node of existence: the thread of places and circumstances, the thread of death, the wire of the unknown and the thread of the relationship with others. Hence it could be deduced four axioms of poetry that serve, however slightly, to favour a dwelling in the world, if not "poetic" at least "authentic". (Pinson, 2011, p.37)

According to Costa ML (2013, p 127), "the Portuguese poets are, for historical, cultural and probably psychological reasons, relevant actors in Portuguese culture, since through the word, show the expression of being and feeling Portuguese and give visibility the evocative images, real or imagined, past and present, which are based on a common imaginary and return it, forming both the individual imagination as the collective. The poet gives voice to the common imagination through the poem and this, at a given time, returns to the individual who receives and incorporates, consolidating the "(...) Magic moment of meeting" (...) The poem wants to meet Another one, needs this Other, of an interlocutor. Search it and offers to him. " (Celan, 1996, p.57)

This magical moment of encounter is mentioned by Ribeiro (2004, p 55), as follows: The "poem, after being written and released by its author and the contingencies that created it, leave to find someone that is available to receive it, to appropriate it, to interpret it, quote it, coexisting with it on certain days or times, making it mote, sentimental or biographical explanation, inter-text, catharsis and everything else that a poem can be: banal or heroic use. He is however at the start, only power: it is through encounter with someone that it function is realised”.

BACHELAR 1998. P:7 also refers to the meeting between the poem and the receiver, saying: "the poem takes us completely. This invasion of the being by poetry has a phenomenological mark that does not disappoint. The exuberance and depth of a poem are always phenomena of the pair resonance-repercussion. It is as if, with its exuberance the poem reanimates the depths of our being. " Thus, "In resonance we hear the poem on the repercussion we speak it, it is ours." (BACHELAR 1998. P:7). I tis in this sense, in the possibility of promoting the encounter between the poem and someone who appropriates it and makes it his, that the itineraries and the designer's work have a decisive importance, because they make the poem accessible to a greater number of "receptive souls” promoting knowledge of poetry and identification with this heritage. In this case, promoting the experience of travelling through Portugal, treading Torga’s paths and his poetry, enabling the enhancing of poetic territory where the Communication Design should provide the possibility of poetic wandering through space, providing clues and instructions through marks in space, poetic evocations, guides and itineraries.

The "exposure" of poetry will contribute to your knowledge and although it will not replace the enjoyment that comes from reading, your connection to the territorial space that inspired it, communicated through campaigns, itineraries, maps, and marked by interventions developed under the Communication Design, promote your knowledge, through emotion. For “Design has the power to enrich our lives by engaging our emotions through image, form, texture, colour, sound and smell. (...) we can use our empathy and understanding of people to design experiences that create opportunities for active engagement and participation”(Brown, 2009, p: 115)

Emotion is not in contradiction with the mission to make it known. The addition of emotion is to add a new layer, in search of the affections of visitors (Tomasa and Serra, 2009, p.23) "Low emotion lowers the barriers of knowledge and the content may be assumed easier by the visitor. And the result is more satisfying” These are the reasons why we argue that the connection to the territory and to the memories, through a playful experience, associated with emotion and affection, will be crucial, since" (...) the development of intelligence is inseparable from affectivity, that curiosity, passion that are the responsibility of the philosophical or scientific research. The affectivity may stifle knowledge, but can also strengthen it."

According to Costa J (2011, p.165) that defines the graphic design is its visual essence, however "the eyes are no more than brain terminals in its connection to the outside. In this context, it is clear that the graphic design has a double target: Aesthetic sensitivity and knowledge. "

These dimensions mentioned, aesthetics and knowledge match the needs to provide access to what we call enjoyment and poetry intelligibility also Frascara (2000, p.20) states that the designer works with the interpretation and management of messages for display on visual images. So we founded the relevance of the project-design practice in poetry communication, access to knowledge and recognition of poetry as an integral part of the cultural identity of the country.


4. Miguel Torga, Study Case

Miguel Torga, (pseudonym of Adolfo Correia Rocha), Portuguese writer, was born in Tras-os-Montes, S. Martinho de Anta, in 1907 and died in Coimbra in 1995. He is the author of an extensive and diverse work, including poetry, Diário (literary diaries), fiction (short stories and novels), drama, essays and doctrinal texts. In 1934 publishes “The third voice”, where Adolfo Rocha adopts the pseudonym Miguel Torga. Miguel, as Miguel de Cervantes and Miguel de Unamuno, two references of the Iberian culture and Torga to evoke the tenacity and endurance, properties of the heather of his transmontana land. (Bernardes and Leão)

The Torga “Diário” is "a summary of heterogeneous notes, autonomous in themselves, but not denying the whole they belong to. (...) Poetry has it privileged role because it is through it that the poet reaches the elevation of the sacred. Naturally synthetic, the torguiana writing finds in the poetic word full debugging, enabler of conciseness of ideas and emotions, distinctive hallmark also of his prose, often pregnant with poetry, and both accomplices of a longing for a wholeness builder of this document that is, first and foremost, a human itinerary "(Leão, 2007: 66)

The importance of poetry in Torga's work he himself mentions stating that if he could start life over again he would have liked to be more poet. (Rocha, 2000), The whole of his poetic work is published in two volumes: Poesias Completas I and II, (Complete Poetry), which brings together all the poems of Miguel Torga, which is dispersed by a set of autonomous books and sixteen volumes of the books Diário (Volms I to XVI), published between 1941 and 1993.

We chose to work from poems that are published in Diário, because they allow us to have an extended understanding of Torga’s imagery and identification of his itinerary, not only human but geographical as well, the physical and emotional relationship that author establishes with places and different landscapes, understanding the deep connection with the land of this country: "There wasn’t a country equal in the world. The air, the land, the people ... everything matching ... I’m not even mentioning history. Acts of valor never matched! Heroes, saints, navigators ... Besides it is the oldest nation in Europe ... "(Torga apud Leão, 2007, p.60)

Miguel Torga says that "Anda que se desunha." (Silva, 2007, p. 234) (this expression means: walking a lot, till drop). And his “Diários” enable us to prove this statement. References to dates and places where the fragmented texts and poems that have been written and are organized according to a chronological order, allow us to make different readings, understand frequent travel, seasonal and professional showing the feelings of Torga about his country.

As methodology for developing this case study, we based our research by collecting and analyse of bibliography related to Miguel Torga and on his own work, from which we highlight, in addition to the Diaries and the two volumes of complete poetry, the work "A Criação do Mundo” (The Creation of the World), which is an autobiographical novel divided into six days and that it was published for the first time in five volumes, between 1937 and 1981; and "Portugal", originally published in 1950. From this research we chose “Diários”, for reasons previously mentioned and we identify the poems and their associated places. We organized the gathered information in tables, which were systematized by districts to obtain a comprehensive view from the distribution of poetry throughout the country. From this structure it was possible to develop a set of graphics that allow an immediate understanding of the distribution of the poetic work of the author. In this sense we worked with infographics the map of Portugal, through the attribution of different chromatic levels of intensity to the districts, according to the number of poems (minimum intensity / white equal to zero poems, maximum intensity over forty poems) (see Figure 1) . This representation allows us an immediate and effective visualization of the concentration of poetry and the perception of the places that will integrate the Poetic Map of Miguel Torga.


Fig. 1


As we can see in Figure 1, all districts of Portugal are included in the poetry of Torga, obviously with different number of poems. Coimbra district where the poet wrote the greater number of poems is only natural once it was the city where he lived and worked for most of his life. Coimbra is than the city that most inspired lyrical Torga, with three hundred seventy-nine poems written in the city and twenty-four in the rest of the district, this is how the poet refers to landscapes of this region: "This Coimbra landscape has the devil inside her. In Alentejo I walk; in Tras-os-Montes I climb; here I float. "(Torga 2011 (c), p 189) (see Figure 2).


Fig. 2


The land where he was born, São Martinho de Anta, "transmontana small village, where he returned whenever the need to regain strength is felt, will remain his axis mundi, corroborating the incessant references throughout his work" (Leão, 2007, p3), also expressed in his poetry, which identified sixty-one poems, while the rest of Vila Real district has over nineteen (see Figure 3)


Fig. 3


Subsequent to this analysis we have chosen to build infographics words cloud with which visually show the importance of each district in the work of Torga (see Figure 4) and the incidence of poems by place: cities, towns, parks such as Gerês, and the Serra da Estrela) (see Figure 5)


Fig. 4


Fig. 5


In the second diagram (Figure 5) we only considered places with more than one poetic work, it is interesting to analyze the importance that nature takes as muse to Torga, including sea landscapes, we tend to associate Torga to interior landscapes, the rugged hills of Tras-os-Montes, but the diagrammatic analysis of the collection of poems concluded that the sea is also an inspiring source to the poet.

However the itinerary proposed here has a wide territorial coverage and would start in on S. Martinho da Anta, where the poet was born. Its key points Minho, which Torga refers in the poem "Minho" as follows:. "Green like the rest of the Rainbow / Who wants to come and fight / Against the monotony / Wine is green, the pain is green, the sea is green ... / Everything is green and is lost / in a green agony. ". Integrate Chaves, Gerês, Caldelas, from where you descend towards Porto, Miramar, Espinho, here we would redirect our journey into the country, to the Serra da Estrela, where we would leave in the direction of Coimbra, to go down the coast to Nazareth, making a new detour to Monforte Alentejo. "Alentejo" poem in which the poet describes as follows: "The light that enlightens you, /earth the colour of the eyes of the beholder / peace we sense / In your loneliness / That no stingy / condition / can understand and populate! / the mystery of your immensity / Where time walks / Without going! ... "

From there we walked towards the south to discover the narrative reflected in the poem "Algarve" - ​​"The mystery of the sea, / The sun miracle / And the landscape of grace / In the frame of one’s eyes. / And the happy peace that I have what is mine. / Oh, beloved land! / Blessing of nature / whitewashed / in purity / And in nimbus / of missing. /Algarve. Freedom / Of the senses./ (...) ". We’ll finish our tour in Lisbon, whose poem, with the name of the city, reveals in detail the much discussed and appreciated light of the city: "The light came slowly / Through the sky ... / would come and remain in the air / Still for a moment, / watching the earth pass / In its terrestrial movement. / Then falling as a towel / Over the folds of the city; / Fall over the shroud / Of ambitions and dust / Almost brutally. / (...) " (see Figure 6)

Everywhere described herein, and others who would be elective (small deviations from the main route) would be accompanied by poems, here not described due to problems related to the translation of poetry.


Fig. 6


5. Design as Process and Method in the Context of Cultural Identity of Promotion

This organizational system based on routes, allows us to sort the poetic drift of Miguel Torga, identifying their places of memory and the main places of lyrical inspiration. For the conceptualisation and geographical configuration of the route we set out the evidence, which enabled the diagrams, define the places in which the poet described ambiences, recorded memories and experiences in the form of poetry. We work then with graphic schemes to understand the subjective process of Miguel Torga’s regard with which he added a new layer to the landscape and the territory. With this route we want this subjectivity to expand and take on transubjectivity to all who do this itinerary, transforming the geographical space in a physical and emotional experience space. We worked a base which founded on memories and we intend to develop through the interaction of design, integrating the user experience at the end of the development process of this project because we defend that heritage only lives by connection and possible ties to establish with its users and its active participation in the whole process.

“In the new design space, we will learn to design for experiencing. Design for experiencing is design that puts experience first and builds to support and enhance it. It starts with real people and their needs and dreams, not with technology. It is about designing with people and not just for them. It is participatory. Design for experiencing addresses the whole user experience, which includes not only the current experience (the moment), but also past experiences (memories) and future experiences (dreams)” (Sanders, 2001)

After this initial phase, it will be necessary to develop a set of material facilitators of the experience: maps, itineraries, which allow ambulation in a space reorganized around poetry. Later, they will define strategies for active participation by the public for evaluation and final implementation of the project. It is intended to develop and test also interventions in the public space, using sensory experiences in terms of touch, of smell, hearing and inevitably vision, with the aim that the poem's reception is a defining moment in cognitive terms and memory. To this end we have identified as a possibility to tamper with "smart paints": photo chromic; phosphorescent; fluorescent; thermo chromic; magnetic, electrical and conductive as well as paints and varnishes aromatic. For the development of this phase of the project we need to walk the land, make a thorough survey of the spaces in order to study the suitability of the proposals.

We consider according SANDERS (1999) that the rules have changed and today the new rules are laid from networks, not hierarchies. Which is why we argue that the practice of participatory design, must be integrated into the communication processes for the fact that there are new forms of social and cultural order of being in the world, it means that there is a need to develop new tools that enable citizens to participate actively in cultural processes. “People want to express themselves and to participate directly and proactively in the design development process.” (Sanders, 2002, p: 2 )

The mark that the designer can leave as a legacy to future generations is the protection of Intangible Heritage, which in this case takes the form of poetry. Legacy that will value the identities and local cultures and thus it may oppose the mass-market consumption that globalization processes potentiate. We will enjoy the identity built around the local conditions, but open to the world, sharing and cultural diversity.


6. Conclusions

The poetry of Miguel Torga is stated as a structural element and proof of the importance of poetry as a form of expression and identity of Portuguese, legitimating the creation of a Poetic Map of Portugal.

Graphical systematization of information collected, allowed identifying the territorial incidence of Torga poetry, as well the places that a poetic itinerary of Torga would necessarily integrate and which could be optional. In this way, we proved that the tools and methodologies used by Design are suitable for itineraries organization.

The development of a set of materials facilitators of relational processes have to be developed based on design methodologies, coming these materials to assume itself as catalysts and facilitators of collaborative experiences that will allow an adequate development of the Poetic Map of Portugal.

The design provides answers to the needs of society through specific methodologies and practices as a cultural producer and promoter.



This paper was presented at Regional Helix 2016, and published exclusively at Convergences.



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Reference According to APA Style, 5th edition:
Costa, M. ; (2017) Design and Cultural Identity - Miguel Torga, Poetic Map. Convergências - Revista de Investigação e Ensino das Artes , VOL X (19) Retrieved from journal URL: