AEG and Peter Behrens’ contribution in unified corporate visual identity design and integrated marketing communication

O contributo da AEG e de Peter Behrens para a unidade do design de identidade visual corporativa e para a comunicação de marketing integrada

Cheirchanteri, G.

UniWA - University of West Attica (Graphic Design and Visual Communication Department)

Retirado de: http://convergencias.esart.ipcb.pt

ABSTRACT: A corporate visual identity is a manner which a corporation, firm or business presents themselves to the public (such as customers and investors as well as employees). Also, corporate visual identity is a primary goal of the corporate communications, for the purpose to maintain and build the identity to accord with and facilitate the corporate business objectives. The purpose of the present article is to signalize the contribution of Peter Behrens in corporate visual identity design because he was not only the father of German Industrial Design but, also, was the founder of corporate identity. Working for AEG, Behrens was the first person which created logotypes, advertising materials, company publications, products and buildings with a consistent, unified design. Among the revolutionary concepts that Behrens introduced during his work with AEG was that form as well as the function was important as a way to appeal to customers. The creation of such a unified corporate visual identity led to the development of brands in industries all over the world, while Behrens himself is now considered the father of industrial design and corporate visual identity.

KEYWORDS: corporate visual identity design, AEG, Peter Behrens, industrial design.

RESUMO: Uma identidade corporativa é a maneira pela qual uma corporação, empresa ou negócio se apresenta ao público (como clientes e investidores, bem como funcionários). Além disso, a identidade corporativa é o principal objetivo das comunicações corporativas, com o objetivo de manter e construir a identidade de acordo e facilitar os objetivos de negócios corporativos. O objetivo do presente artigo é sinalizar a contribuição de Peter Behrens no design de identidade corporativa, porque ele não era apenas o pai do Design Industrial alemão, mas também o fundador da identidade corporativa. Trabalhando para a AEG, Behrens foi a primeira pessoa a criar logotipos, materiais publicitários, publicações da empresa, produtos e edifícios com um design consistente e unificado. Entre os conceitos revolucionários que Behrens introduziu durante seu trabalho com a AEG, a forma e a função foram importantes como uma maneira de atrair os clientes. A criação de uma identidade corporativa unificada levou ao desenvolvimento de marcas em indústrias em todo o mundo, enquanto o próprio Behrens é agora considerado o pai do design industrial e da identidade corporativa.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE: design de identidade corporativa, AEG, Peter Behrens, design industrial.

1. Introduction

In today's world, we are surrounded by strong, easily-recognizable brands, but it was not always like this. It was Peter Behrens' creativity that first established the "corporate visual identity" concept as the basic element of the philosophy of an industrial company and its brands.

So, corporate visual identity became the set of multi-sensory elements that marketers employ to communicate a visual statement about the brand to consumers. These multi-sensory elements include but are not limited to company name, logotypes, slogan, buildings, décor, uniforms, company colours and in some cases, even the physical appearance of customer facing employees. Corporate visual Identity is either weak or strong; to understand this concept, it is beneficial to consider exactly what constitutes a strong corporate visual identity.

Consonance, in the context of marketing, is a unified message offered to consumers from all fronts of the organization (LAURIE & MORTIMER, 2011). In the context of corporate visual identity, consonance is the alignment of all touch points (BAILEY, 2015). For example, Apple has strong brand consonance because at every point at which the consumer interacts with the brand, a consistent message is conveyed. This is appeared in Apple TV advertisements, the Apple Store design, the physical presentation of customer facing Apple employees and the actual products, such as the iPhone, iPad and MacBook laptops. Every Apple touch point is communicating a unified message: From the advertising of the brand to the product packaging, the message sent to consumers is 'we are simple, sophisticated, fun and user friendly. [1] Brand consonance solidifies corporate identity and encourages brand acceptance, on the grounds that when a consumer is exposed to a consistent message multiple times across the entirety of a brand, the message is easier to trust and the existence of the brand is easier to accept (HOYER, MACLNNS & PIETERS, 2012). Strong brand consonance is imperative to achieving strong corporate visual identity.

In a recent monograph on Chinese corporate identity (PEVERELLI, 2006), Peter Peverelli, proposes a new definition of corporate visual identity, based on the general organization theory proposed in his earlier work, in particular Peverelli [2]. This definition regards identity as a result of social interaction:

-Corporate visual identity is the way corporate actors (actors who perceive themselves as acting on behalf of the company) make sense of their company in ongoing social interaction with other actors in a specific context. It includes shared perceptions of reality, ways-to-do-things, etc., and interlocked behaviour.

-In this process the corporate actors are of equal importance as those others; corporate visual identity pertains to the company (the group of corporate actors) as well as to the relevant others;

The following four key brand requirements are critical for a successful corporate visual identity strategy.

Differentiation. In today's highly competitive market, brands need to have a clear differentiation or reason for being. What they represent needs to stand apart from others in order to be noticed, make an impression, and to ultimately be preferred.

Relevance. Brands need to connect to what people care about out in the world. To build demand, they need to understand and fulfill the needs and aspirations of their intended audiences.

Coherence. To assure credibility with their audiences, brands must be coherent in what they say and do. All the messages, all the marketing communications, all the brand experiences, and all of the product delivery need to hang together and add up to something meaningful.

Esteem. A brand that is differentiated, relevant and coherent is one that is valued by both its internal and external audiences. Esteem is the reputation a brand has earned by executing clearly on both its promised and delivered experience.

 

2. Peter Behrens designing for AEG

It may seem incredible today, but there was a time when industrial production was purely functional. Artistic merit and aesthetic sense were largely irrelevant in mass-produced goods; there was little harmony between form and function. At least, that was how it was until 1907, when a certain architect, Peter Behrens, was appointed Artistic Consultant to AEG, after a successful first venture together designing advertising material.

The history of Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft (General Electric Company), better known around the world today as the brand AEG, extends back over 120 years and includes not only a ground-breaking heritage in electrical tools and engineering but a formative role in establishing the field of industrial design through its connection with the multi-talented German designer Peter Behrens. From 1907 and then, AEG was not only a leader in the type of products it produced but the way it presented them.

Behrens, a Renaissance man in the true sense of the word, embodied a wide range of visionary talents, moving with ease between several disciplines: painting, graphic design, architecture, and furniture design. Also, he worked with, and was an inspiration to, some of the biggest names in Modernism, including Walter Gropius, founder of the Bauhaus school and Swiss designer and architect Le Corbusier.

In other words, Behrens, one of the most influential creative minds of his time, was a leading innovator in painting, graphic design and architecture, whose work has continued to echo through the generations to the present time.

In his work for AEG over the next seven years, Behrens enjoyed a wide remit that took him from product design to publicity materials and even ground-breaking factory. His design for electrical appliances employed standardized components which enabled them to be interchangeable, adding to rationalization. He also tackled sales room design as well as brochures, and catalogues. Among the revolutionary concepts that Behrens introduced during his work with AEG was that form as well as function was important as a way to appeal to customers. Breaking with the conventions of the day that looked only to a product’s technical capabilities, Behrens said: “Design is not about decorating functional forms – it is about creating forms that accord with the character of the object and that show technologies to advantage.” A key element was the AEG logotype, which went through several evolutions under Behrens.

 

Fig. 1 – AEG Logo, Franz Scwechten, 1986.

Source: Buddensieg 1984

 

Fig. 2 – AEG Logo, Behrens, 1907.

Source: Buddensieg 1984

 

Behrens designed four logotypes for AEG. The first one is designed in 1907, which can be called as a simplified version of Franz Schwechten's ornamented logo of 1896 (Figure 1,2). Comparing these logos, there is a great jump from Arts and Crafts to stylistic curves and clear strokes of Peter Behrens. The second one was designed in 1908 and it has more to do with handwriting comparing with the first one (Figure 3). Gabriele Heidecker [3] refers a relation between the founder company and the logotype, because of there are similarities with the monogram of Emil Rathenau's certificate (Figure 4), which is designed in the same year with the elliptic logotype. In the same year he designed his famous hexagon logotype for AEG (Figure 5) and by 1912, AEG had the plain logotype with Behrens Antiqua surrounded by a mere rectangle (Figure 6), which is still in use today with its strong and sober effect (Figure 7).

 

Fig. 3 – AEG Logo, Behrens, 1908.

Source: Schwartz 1996a

 

Fig. 4 – ER Logo, Behrens, 1908.

Source: Buddensieg 1984

 

Fig. 5 – AEG Logo, Behrens, 1908.

Source: Schwartz 1996a

 

Fig. 6 – Rectangle Logo in 1912.

Source: Cramsie 2010

 

Fig. 7 – AEG Logo today.

Source: www.aeg.com 2018

 

It is worth mentioning that the hexagon logotype of AEG designed by Behrens is the most celebrated logotype of AEG. Paul Overy, [4] who is an art and architecture historian confirms Scheffler’s interpretation of this later logotype and notes that the hexagon logotype is an “apt symbol of the power, the longevity of AEG and in addition the power of capitalism” (OVERY 2007). According to Schwartz [5] the hexagon logotype was the diamond symbol, which was first used by Behrens in the opening ceremony of the Colony exhibition titled ‘Ein Dokument Deutscher Kunst’ (1901) as the symbol of a new life. Diamond created an analogy to the honeycomb alluding to the diligence of bees. It had also similarities to the chemical symbol of the benzene-ring –an important discovery of the period. Although these symbolic explanations might be important to understand the logotype’s significance, the ‘idea of creating a logo’ itself has far more importance in understanding AEG’s corporate visual identity. He designed four different logotypes, quite different from each other, where the last one is still in use today. Its current use proves its success in giving the message that company wanted to spread. This might suggest that not only Behrens but also AEG found the representation of its identity in this logotype. When there was no talk of belonging to a corporate culture, Behrens felt a need for a logotype, which will be consistent with the products and whole environments that he designed for AEG. Not only had he designed a unique logotype for AEG but also a unique typeface in consistency with the other designs for AEG.

The successful AEG logotype was based on Peter Behrens’ typeface, called Behrens Antiqua, which was unique to this company and was used also, for AEG corporate visual identity design. As it is known, beginning from 1902, Behrens designed 4 typefaces, which were Behrens Schrift in 1902, Behrens Kursiv in 1906, Behrens Antiqua in 1908 and Behrens Medieval in 1914 (AYNSLEY, 2004). In 1902, Behrens stated the importance giving to typefaces as follows: “One of the most eloquent means of expressing style of any epoch is through letterforms. After architecture, they probably give the most characteristic picture of a time and the best evidence of the state of a nation’s spiritual development” (BURKE, 1992).

According to Behrens it is possible to understand the spirit of the age -Zeitgeist- through letterforms. In the beginning of the twentieth century the dominant typeface was black-letter in Germany which was referring to the medieval ages or Gothic scripts. In comparison with the Roman typefaces they were narrower, the distances between letters and lines were closer, therefore when the viewer looked at the text written with black-letters, saw a darker image in general. In order to reflect the spirit of the time Behrens' interest was more on Roman typefaces rather than Gothic scripts (AYNSLEY, 2004).

As it was said before, Peter Behrens’ works for AEG had a wide range from typefaces to factory buildings. Especially, as he supported for industrial buildings, the ‘impressive’ and ‘friendly appearance of the exterior’ are important characteristics that define the architecture of the factory from the outside. His idea was not only to represent the mechanization processes nor only to give a mere space to production, but at the same time to create an impressive building. This was also explicit on his ideas about the lettering on buildings, which was not a problem of combining two different arts –architecture and graphic design – it was “solely about architecture” (BURKE, 1992). In addition, lettering was no longer decorative, it was a building element such as window or wall and it could be used in order to create impressive appearances.

The Turbine Factory built in 1909-10 was the most celebrated building of Behrens, which was labeled as ‘cathedral of labor’ by Le Corbusier in 1912 (Figure 8), (BLETTER, 1996). This building was quite different from the other factories he built for AEG and Anderson adds that this was also related to the location of the building, which would serve as the ‘show front of the entire factory complex’ (ANDERSON, 2000). In this building, Behrens supported the use of steel and glass. So, corner pylons and the gable, gave a monumental impression to the Hutten Straβe façade, while the repetition of pillars in Berlichingenstraβe façade, are emphasizing the hinges, which are placed before the eyes of the visitor, walking next to the building. But on the gable, Behrens does something innovative and engraves the hexagon logotype of the company (Figure 8), which Osthaus calls as the only ornament of the building (OSTHAUS, 1910). Moreover, Eskilson [6] connects the logo relation to the effects of Japanisme with its repetition of three times the same hexagon in a bigger hexagon. In this logotype Behrens uses the same font that he designed for AEG. It is also interesting to come across with the same logotype for NAG which is purchased by AEG in 1902, that manufactured car as a subsidiary company of AEG (Figure 9).

 

Fig. 8 – Turbine Factory AEG Logo and Inscription on the Gable.

Source: Anderson 2000

 

Fig. 9 – NAG Logo.

Source: Buddensieg 1984

 

 

Additionally, industrial processes that created mass-production were an important challenge for the artists at the end of nineteenth and early twentieth century, as well for Behrens career. In 1907, when he started designing for AEG, he became a member of Deutscher Werkbund. At the same time, there was a need for mass production and Werkbund aimed to fill the gap between designers and industrialists, so the idea of the artists was to feed industry by art and to disseminate it, giving a better life to people. The rise of scientific management and mass-production did influence Behrens’ works for AEG in three ways. Initially, conjuncture gave birth to necessity to market the products in that factories were manufacturing. It was necessary for designers to seduce customers to consume and to adapt the challenge of mechanical production to design, and as it is said above, Behrens became an adviser for AEG in order to design everything related with the company from its typefaces to buildings. He also used these techniques producing his designs, in such a way to be manufactured by interchangeable parts. He did not only use these techniques to improve productivity but also as aesthetic representations that enriched his design perspective.

Behrens' designs were pretty different from the earlier designs of AEG and according to Alan Windsor [7] AEG managerial board found it worthwhile to change, even, the manufacturing process. By this way, AEG succeeded two things; decrease of manufacturing costs and increase of sales. As a result, the lowered prices made people to afford the products easier than before, and mass produced products, had the appearance of hand-made were disdained as cheap.

For the graphic language that defined AEG’s corporate visual identity, Behrens developed a new program based on pure geometrical forms, a dominant graphic object and a solid logotype. The preference for such forms highlighted a strong and reliable company. He designed vast number of advertisements or printed materials and also products for AEG. As a chief designer, Behrens started working for the big German, on advertising posters and brochure designs for lamps. Also, he was working on designs of daily used electrical products, which design was mostly copying the artistic pieces by their shape and the artistic historical decoration.

As a company, AEG, started producing light bulbs, so Behrens’ designs for AEG were also based on lamps and light bulbs. For instance, in his poster for AEG filament lamps in 1907 (Figure 10) there is “abstract geometrical forms and lamp like stars against a dark sky suggesting the power of light source” (HIESINGER, 1993). Additionally, in this poster, which was one of his famous designs, used geometrical arrangements with its impressive colors. So that, product is depicted with the simplification of images using them, as they were just come out from the assembly line, (HEIDECKER,1984) which Behrens took and without adornments, just gave a name to them under the cover of AEG.

Behrens’ table fans (1908) (Figure 11) and kettles (1909) are the most famous of all his products that he designed for AEG, specially kettles reflecting a “certain house style” (SCHWARTZ, 1996, b). Moreover, in the brochure of kettles, he also used the unique typeface, known as Antique, for the AEG corporate design. In the general layout of the brochure (Figure 12) one can see the dominancy of the geometrical proportions, where vertically there are three main zones, surrounded by double lined frames. In the first zone the name of the product and the designer Prof. Peter Behrens, are written. In the central zone, which is approximately five times the dimension of the heading and the footer, contains kettles in again three main zones. In the first one there is a square in which the kettle is placed with a circle surrounded by two frames. Under the kettle the type-name of the product is written and at the bottom the varieties of the products with the prices. In the last zone of the brochure the name of the company without abbreviation and the class which these products belong to be written. Horizontally in the central core of the brochure, there is again tripartite division in which three different types of kettles are placed. In the central section Behrens placed the kettle with its hand beaten metal finishing.

Behrens was influenced by J. L. M. Lauweriks whom he worked together with in Düsseldorf Academy of Arts, who was known with his geometrical system and he believed in eurhythmics, a term which came from ancient Greece that connotes movement, order or proportions of the body and its relation with nature (ANDERSON, 2000). Similarly Dutch architect Hendrik P. Berlage mentions the triangulation, which is the main theme from ancient Greece to Gothic architecture (ANDERSON, 2000). Tripartite geometry in his printed materials for AEG is one of the common themes. Generally he starts with the name of the product then creates a dominant zone for the product in which he places the abstract representation of the product and to the footer he places the name of the company, which is also the case for his brochure of kettles.

 

Fig. 10 – Filament Lamps Poster 1907.

Source: Anysley 2001

 

Fig. 11 – Fan Poster 1908.

Source: Buddensieg 1984

 

Fig. 12 – Brochure for Kettles, 1909.

Source: Archive of Deutsches TechnikMuseum

 

3. AEG and Peter Behrens: Pioneering corporate visual identity and integrated marketing communication

When Behrens came to AEG, he brought with him a simple but powerful design philosophy that was to be the enduring hallmark of the AEG Company and its products. The paradigm shift that Behrens effected in AEG and in the self-conception of German industrial design as a whole was based on the notion of developing electrical household appliances with an eye both to aesthetics and the specific function of the object. To quote Behrens himself: "Design is not about decorating functional forms - it is about creating forms that accord with the character of the object and that show new technologies to advantage." But product design was just the beginning; when Behrens went on to embed himself and his design approach in the entire corporate culture. He designed factories that were tailored to the individual requirements of AEG and its workers; he created not only the company logotype, but the company's whole corporate visual identity, including numerous advertising campaigns.

The new designs centered on the integration of art and industry, combining an antique typeface, clean, simple lines and a geometric form that reduced the exterior flourishes of the company’s previous Art Nouveau style logotype to focus symbolically on the strength, power and efficiency of AEG and the industrial age. From this concept, and his work throughout the company, Behrens was able to develop a consistency of approach leading to an identifiable look and feel to products, materials and buildings associated with AEG. The creation of such a unified corporate visual identity was unparalleled at the time. But the power of such a persona to assist the company’s business goals and boost recognition and loyalty among consumers was quickly recognized. This eventually led to the development of brands in industries all over the world while Behrens himself is now considered the father of industrial design and corporate visual identity.

There is the 'reorganization and representation of the major multinational company' in Behrens' work for AEG more or less 50 years before the creation of the term. If we leave all the factors that affected Behrens while designing the products aside and look at Behrens' designs in terms of their consistency and their relationships there is a clear kinship between all his designs. As a first step he designed a typeface Behrens Antiqua, which will help the designs to speak the same language. He created logotypes for the company that put all designs under the same roof and one of them is still in use today. In his graphic works he used a clear and abstract graphic language, the typeface and the logotype that he designed for the company, which drew attention to product and company. His products are children of industrialization and set the firm clearly apart from the competitors with their clear and unornamented designs, which are carrying the logotype with great dignity. His buildings for AEG that were representing the company, had the same logotype and same basic geometries which made them to belong to the same giant AEG family.

When there is no talk of belonging to a corporate image his designs truly speak the same language and complement each other. It is obvious that all his designs underline a strong and reliable company, which is using the modern industrial techniques. We saw that his designs belong to the same language and to my view there is something more than exposing the strong and reliable effect of AEG; a symbolic dimension to his designs. One of the underlying ideas in his corporate visual identity is the 'education of public' as I discussed in the previous chapters. Like his friends he believed that his designs were capable of educating people to have a better taste which would give them a better life. They believed that a better life – utopia – was possible and this could be created by the education of public through industry. Furthermore, he used interchangeable parts and standardization and exposed them as aesthetical elements of his designs.

Nowadays, strong consonance, and in turn, strong corporate visual identity can be achieved through the implementation and integration of integrated marketing communications (IMC). IMC is a collective of concepts and communications processes that seek to establish clarity and consistency in the positioning of a brand in the mind of consumers (ANG, 2014). As espoused by Holm (LAURIE & MORTIMER, 2011), at its ultimate stage, IMC is implemented at a corporate level and consolidates all aspects of the organisation; this initiates brand consonance which in turn inspires strong corporate identity. To appreciate this idea with heavier mental weight it is important to regard the different levels of IMC integration.

The communication-based model, advanced by Duncan and Moriarty (LAURIE & MORTIMER, 2011), contends that there are three levels of IMC integration; Duncan and Moriarty affirm that the lowest level of IMC integration is level one where IMC decisions are made by marketing communication level message sources. These sources include personal sales, advertising, sales promotion, direct marketing, public relations, packaging and events departments. The stake holders concerned at this stage are consumers, local communities, media and interest groups. At the second stage of IMC integration Duncan and Moriarty establish that level one integration departments still have decision making power but are now guided by marketing level message sources. At stage two, integration the message sources are those departments in which product mix, price mix, marketing communication and distribution mix are settled; appropriately, stakeholders at this stage of integration are distributors, suppliers and competition. It should also be noted that it is at this stage of integration that consumers interact with the organization. Moving forward, the last stage Duncan and Moriarty's Communication Based Model is stage three where message sources are at the corporate level of the organization; these message sources include administration, manufacturing operations, marketing, finance, human resources and legal departments. In a few words, Duncan and Moriarty demonstrate how interactive communication at three levels – corporate, marketing and marketing communication- leads to the brand relationships that drive brand value. The stake holders at this level of IMC integration are employees, investors, financial community, government and regulators (DUNCAN & MORIARTY, 1998). At the final stages of IMC integration, IMC decisions are made not only by corporate level departments but also by departments classed in stages one and two. It is the inclusion of all organizational departments by which a horizontal, nonlinear method of communication with consumers is achieved. By unifying all fronts of the marketing firm, communications are synchronised to achieve consistency, consonance and ultimately strong corporate visual identity.

 

4. Conclusions

Actually, the concept of visually trademarking one's business spread widely during the Industrial Revolution. The shift of business in favour of non-agricultural enterprise caused business, and corporate consciousness, to boom. Logotype use became a mainstream part of identification, and over time, it held more power than being a simple identifier. Some logotypes held more value than others, and served more as assets than symbols. Logotypes are now the visual identifiers of corporations. They became components of corporate visual identities by communicating brands and unifying messages. The evolution of symbols went from a way for a king to seal a letter, to how businesses establish their credibility and sell everything from financial services to hamburgers. Therefore, although the specific terms "corporate image" and "brand identity" didn't enter business or design vocabulary until the 1940s, within twenty years they became key elements to business success.

Peter Behrens, as an architect and AEG consultant, designed the first corporate visual identity for this company starting from buildings and typefaces to products. His designs spoke the same language, which made them consistent and they created a reliable and strong image for AEG. Scientific management and mass production techniques had influences on the Behrens’ designs but one cannot claim that these were the only forces that shaped his design.

Firstly, Peter Behrens’ works for AEG were the predecessors of a corporate visual identity design, with their four characteristics. Initially, his designs had a holistic approach that covered all the design fields that were related with AEG, creating a unique typeface for AEG called as ‘Behrens Antiqua’ and using this for all his designs. He designed several logotypes until he found the best that was in accordance with the image of AEG, which is still in use today. He dealt with the design of advertisements and printed materials in order to control the language that AEG spoke with the customers. He was responsible for company’s products and designed buildings and products for AEG to manufacture. Second, all his designs underlined the strength and reliability of AEG, which was an important image for a company that was trying to be the leader of the market of domestic appliances, using similar geometric arrangements and references that made them speak the similar language. Third, while designing for AEG he considered the market necessities as well, which was the wish of Walter Rathenau too, giving public the products which constituted the elements of a new style. While implementing this new- style his idea was to educate the public with art and to give a better life to the people, like most of the intellectuals of the age. Fourth, his corporate visual identity design for AEG differentiated AEG from the competitors and paved the way for the market success of AEG. While other companies were not even considering creating a logotype, he designed a unique typeface, products and buildings for AEG. Anderson [8] claimed that his works influenced marketing strategies of their contemporaries such as Olivetti and IBM.

The creation of such a unified corporate visual identity was unparalleled at the time. But the power of such a persona to assist the company’s business goals and boost recognition and loyalty among consumers, was quickly recognized. This eventually led to the development of brands in industries all over the world while Behrens himself is now considered the father of industrial design and corporate visual identity.

 

Notes

[1] MARKETING MINDS, (2015), Apple brand architecture. Retrieved March 18, 2016 from http://www.marketingminds.com.au/apple_branding_strategy.html

[2] PEVERELLI, P.J., Song, J., (2000), Chinese Entrepreneurship. A Social Capital Approach, Springer, p.11-38

[3] BUDDENSIEG, T et al. (1984), IndustrieKultur: Peter Behrens and the AEG, 1907 – 1914, trans. IB Whyte, MIT Press, Massachusetts

[4] OVERY, P. (2007), Light, Air & Openness: Modern Architecture Between the Wars, Thames & Hudson, London, p.18.

[5] SCHWARTZ, FJ (1996a), ‘Commodity Signs: Peter Behrens, the AEG, and the Trademark’, Journal of Design History, Vol. 9, No. 3, p. 153 –184.

[6] ESKILSON, SJ. (2007), Graphic Design: A New History, Laurence King Pub, London

[7] WINDSOR, A. (1981), Peter Behrens: Architect & Designer, Architectural Press, London.

[8] ANDERSON, S. (1968), ‘Peter Behrens and The New Architecture of Germany 1900-1917’, PhD Thesis, Columbia University.

 

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Reference According to APA Style, 5th edition:
Cheirchanteri, G. ; (2018) AEG and Peter Behrens’ contribution in unified corporate visual identity design and integrated marketing communication. Convergências - Revista de Investigação e Ensino das Artes , VOL XI (21) Retrieved from journal URL: http://convergencias.ipcb.pt