Rai Way, Gio Ponti, Antennas & Butterflies. The RAI – Italian Broadcasting Television Control Center in Monza 1954–2004

Rai Way, Gio Ponti, Antennas & Butterflies. The RAI - Italian Broadcasting Television Control Center in Monza 1954-2004

Galbiati, M.

Polimi - Politecnico di Milano: School of Design

Retirado de: http://convergencias.esart.ipcb.pt

RESUMO: Gio Ponti foi um dos mais importantes arquitetos do século passado. Nascido em Milão em 1891, foi diretor de arte de muitas fábricas importantes, promotor e editor da Domus, em seu escritório-estúdio trabalhou de 1933 a 1945 com os engenheiros Antonio Fornaroli e Eugenio Soncini, de 1945 a 1952 com Antonio Fornaroli apenas e de 1952 com Alberto Rosselli também até 1979. Muitos projetos e edifícios famosos foram feitos pelo mundo inteiro com seu projeto completo do furniture às janelas, das lâmpadas às cadeiras, da porta do punho às caudas da cerâmica. Neste meu pouco de pesquisa, depois de muitos anos, eu escrevo sobre um projeto de projeto completo desconhecido, onde não só o edifício comum com mobiliário, mas pela primeira vez com RAI Televisão italiana Broadcasting alta tecnologia também. Graças a Rai Way ter mantido e mantém "no ar" este importante documento ativo sobre Gio Ponti que não casualmente é história de design do mundo inteiro.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Gio Ponti; Arquiteto designer; RAI Italian Broadcasting Television


ABSTRACT: Gio Ponti was one of the most important architect designer of the last century. Born in Milan in 1891, was art director of many important manufactories, promoter and editor of Domus, in his office-studio worked from 1933 to 1945 with Engineers Antonio Fornaroli and Eugenio Soncini, from 1945 to 1952 with Antonio Fornaroli only and from 1952 with Alberto Rosselli too until 1979. Many famous projects and buildings were made all over the world with their complete design from furniture to windows, from lamps to chairs, from handle door to ceramics tails. In this my little research, after many year, I write about an unknown complete project design where not only the building joint with furniture but for the first time with RAI Italian Broadcasting Television high technology too. Thanks to Rai Way to have kept and keeps “on air” this important active document about Gio Ponti that not casually is history of design of the whole world.


KEYWORDS: Gio Ponti; Architect designer; RAI Italian Broadcasting Television

Gio Ponti was one of the most important architect designer of the last century. Born in Milan in 1891, was art director of many important manufactories, promoter and editor of Domus, in his office-studio worked from 1933 to 1945 with Engineers Antonio Fornaroli and Eugenio Soncini, from 1945 to 1952 with Antonio Fornaroli only and from 1952 with Alberto Rosselli too until 1979. Many famous projects and buildings were made all over the world with their complete design from furniture to windows, from lamps to chairs, from handle door to ceramics tails. In this my little research, after many year, I write about an unknown complete project design where not only the building joint with furniture but for the first time with RAI Italian Broadcasting Television high technology too. Thanks to Rai Way to have kept and keeps “on air” this important active document about Gio Ponti that not casually is history of design of the whole world.

Fig. 1 – Rai Way Control Centre Monza - Tower stairs detail 

Legend: Marcello Galbiati - archives


Ethereal vision, so was entitled a graduate work on the probably future of Tv communication and about all transmission on aerial system (via etere), where discoursed about the communication problems, about telecast, about connecting, about diffusion, about to listen, to see, to watch picture and about to control picture signals on air transmitted and received.

Particularly about control radio signals is what from 75 years the RAI [1], before called E.I.A.R. [2] Control Center make. Start as “Experimental Laboratory” [3] as E.I.A.R. in 1929 in Sesto Calende in the little house called “Trento” [4], afterwards the control centre was called Control Laboratory EIAR Radio Italia, during the Allied Government until 1946 and at last Control Center RAI, actually in the modern building from 1954 in the park of the Royal Palace in Monza.
In occasion of the first 50 years in Monza Park, on Mirabellino Road, Rai Way [5] had organized on 6 June 2oo4 an open day to all people, to show the work and technology about control of frequency and signal on air [6].


Fig. 2 – Rai Way Control Centre Monza - West wiew – project

Legend: Rai Way archives


Fig. 3 – Rai Way Control Centre Monza - West wiew – project

Legend: Rai Way archives


Fig. 4 – Rai Way Control Centre Monza – Edilizia Moderna EM53 - december 1954

Legend: Albe & Lica Steiner archives – DPA Politecnico di Milano


Just on may, 30th 1954 in the tasteful building made on project of Gio Ponti in cooperation with Antonio Fornaroli and Alberto Rosselli, a building-villa that on plant take form from a section of a satellite dish as parabolic antenna [7], was open and put on service to work the Rai Control Center in Monza Park [8], built here in substitution of the other in Sesto Calende on the Maggiore Lake (Verbano), at work from 1929. This  decision was wanted to control better the signal and to measure the range of the frequencies transmitted by Radio and Tv, far from electrical lines, railways, industries, thus Rai proposed to choose an area into the Park of the ex Royal Palace in Monza, ideal place to work better and to put some different types of reception antennas [9], particularly one high iron framework wheeling antenna [10].
The most important activities of the RAI Control Center in Monza is and was to control the quality of the radio signals, on air, digital and satellite [11], to respect the accord of transmission. In this context by technology was clear to see how time and research changed so fast instruments to take measure and to control [12], but so lucky and not so fast is changed the building and the shape of this little building designed by Gio Ponti, in a fantastic and without time place.
I knew the Rai building in the Park of Monza only outdoor, only by little image and vision, but more by personal remember, more about the high antenna that is possible to see from a distance, out from the park, expecially during the night with its red signal light as beacon for airplane, respect the building as research laboratory, and office [13]. So for the first time, (but after for more time) I studied this building about its architectural aspects, and so I started to compare the original project [14] with the present. With my great surprise I can see that all and great part of this designed building-villa stays as Gio Ponti wants in His project [15].

A “no time“ building, full in the green of the meadows and the bush, in front of one of the most planted road with trees in the Park, in an indefinable fantastic place just about the “no Time”  that the reality of a designed and planned great park put in hard contrast with current reality. An historic park where natural and artificial stay in great contrast every time, where all should be, can be past but where the reality of research is now more than ever in the future respect all people know at the moment.


Fig. 5 – Rai Way Control Centre Monza – East wiew 1965

 Legend: Rai Way archives


Fig. 6 – Rai Way Control Centre Monza – East wiew 2004

Legend: Rai Way archives


Fig. 7 – Rai Way Control Centre  Monza - South East façade detail

Legend: Marcello Galbiati - archives


Fig. 8 – Rai Way Control Centre Monza – East Façade

Legend: Marcello Galbiati - archives


Fig. 9 – Rai Way Control Centre Monza – Interior

Legend: Marcello Galbiati – archives


Fig. 10 – Rai Way Control Centre Monza – Interior stairs with marble

Legend: Marcello Galbiati – archives


Fig. 11 – Rai Way Control Centre Monza – Interior stairs detail

Legend: Marcello Galbiati – archives

This is my personal feeling every time I can turn my view to Rai building in Monza Park.
Particularly the principal front, on East front, the most correct front respect first original project of 1954 [16], is the most interesting façade, with an underground floor characterized with a long horizontal stripe of matt glass windows, a long ground floor (first Floor) with a stripe of windows as mirror [17] and a parapet wall covered with little mosaic tiles in ceramics coloured in dark grey/black [18]. Here on the main façade on the left place of the main entrance appear the historical RAI logo emblem [19]. Here over the main entry, appears the folding shed that flies in the air, in the middle, on centre, over the entry stair. The first floor/ground floor is used as office and laboratory; we can entry from the main entrance, by the concrete stair with long landing fixed in the middle to a concrete beam. This external stairs is surmounted by the folding shed, free in the air with its metallic structure, directly fixed to the sash (framework) of the door/window of the entry [20].

Other external interesting distinctive element, is the drip in painted plate (iron sheet), that marked the horizontal floor, at now painted dark grey colour, but originally painted in red colour, as the handrail, made with iron tube painted as the drip, the windows-sill and the metallic outline of the shed.

Probably this was the original colour of all metallic parts that appeared on the façade, all façades, marked on the top by this red painted drip, that from the half ’60 years was already remembered in dark grey colour or black [21]. This building, from Antonio Fornaroli’s words, as written on the magazine “Edilizia Moderna”, must shown external with red painted parts about all metallic iron elements, white colour about structural parts and dark grey/black about the mosaic surfaces in closer connection with the transparent reflex of windows.

Not so interesting, in comparison with the first original sketches of Gio Ponti, are the other façades built, more simply, essential but not with a no designed project, in the formal respect of Gio Ponti’s project and in the respect of the projects wanted by Rai and from office Studio Ponti-Fornaroli-Rosselli, where is possible to see a strong reference to old and previous project and buildings, that at the moment (1954) still were under construction.

I propose to compare many technical solution used in next years on the buildings of the Faculty of Architecture of Politecnico di Milano campus Leonardo, and on many other important buildings carried out during the same period in Italy and foreign country [22].


Fig. 12 – Rai Way Control Centre Monza – South western façade detail

Legend: Marcello Galbiati – archives


Fig. 13 – Rai Way Control Center Monza – OM Tower 1954


Legend: Rai Way archives


Fig. 14 – Rai Way Control Center Monza – OM Tower 1954

 Legend: Rai Way archives


Fig. 15 – Rai Way Control Center Monza – OM Tower 

Legend: Marcello Galbiati – archives


Not was built, as from sketch, the great reflecting stripe windows on southern and western façades, but replaced as project designed, with traditional windows by iron grey painted frames, at now on place and original, on the white ivory painted wall.

The façades, moreover, in comparison with the great wealth of the facing of the wall with the little mosaic dark grey, as proposed on the original project, they have now  plastered surface painted by pale ivory white colour, with no ornaments. Here, only the essentiality of lines and the inclination of the line of vertical shape, like a buttress where the two façades joint together, put down a frame to the western façade with the side walk pavement, made with regular squared blocks (made in pre-fabricated concrete), and up the great brim of the eaves, mark the obvious simplicity of the project in its composition [23].

More interesting for me in the rule by interior and exterior, indoor use and outdoor image, is the circular little glass wall tower, called “torretta O.M.” [24] (little tower O.M.), built with structure on wood, all made of wood, perfectly in a good maintenance [25], located on the roof plane covering deck floor [26], on raising in spurt on the flat roof of the building, that in the middle of the project is like a great knob of a tuner, out of scale, of a technological instrument that permits to measure the invisible.

We can entry in the tower only by an interior room, walking a winding staircase made by reinforced concrete, with steps covered by black rubber floor with grey/white stripes, original from Pirelli Spa factory production; more interesting is to see that the intrados of this staircase is painted in red colour, still on place as always appear on few (little) original pictures, with the central cylindrical element painted in light grey [27].
Into the little circular wood tower there is a central wall parapet, with smooth finish painted white, with the top made by polished and painted oak wood [28].

The hot blast heating system into this little tower O.M. was made with warm air from the underground floor, that, from the central cylinder of the staircase, brings warm air into the tower. The pipe is surmounted with an elegant open element in conical section, made of white opaline glass, that permits the diffusion of air, and more interesting, of natural light by reflection of light that comes also from the interior wooden ceiling, painted in white. The tower O.M. has no electrical light sistem to use during the night, this because electrical system must create interference to the research [29].

In the ground floor interior is more evident and marked Gio Ponti’s style: just in the entry hall, on left is possible to see a great picture with the polar projection from Monza [30], instead on right side, in the hall under the white sail that brings lamps and lights [31], appear an original furniture, like a sitting room made on Gio Ponti’s design [32].

This hall is marked by a Lasa venato marble floor, made with great marble slabs by regulars cuts, puts on the flat floor with an angle of 45° grade, with a particular design that marks the point where floor joins the interior staircase. We can find on the interior lining of staircase the same material, white marble, and on the skirting board of the stairs [33]. The iron painted parapet, where the handrail is fixed, are made as single element, from the underground to the second floor, made by horizontal iron bars (with round section) painted white, with handrail painted in black enamel and upright in light grey.

Over the main central hall, with glass doors, made by temperated safety glass doors, we stay in the long side corridor of the ground floor (first floor) that organizes on left and on right the space for the offices and laboratories. The floor is made by Pirelli factory rubber floor, colour black with white and grey fantasy stripes [34], while skirting board are made in black rubber glued to the inside wall.

Inside wall have all whitewashing and painted in white or ivory color, marking the oak door-post to the offices, with all the window over the doors with transparent glass, lined up on left and right.

All doors, all original and marked by the high baseboard in oak wood narrower respect to the width of the doors, are all with only one leaf. The office’s doors are with close leaf by laminated panels ivory/white colour, playing in the long corridor with the other laboratories’ doors made with little square window with rounded corners and transparent glass, with brass bolts and handles on oak wood door-post [35].  Also the protection near handle, on all the doors, is in wood, oak wood, as usually Gio Ponti used in interior project, not painted but only polished.

All the doors have their original handles designed by Gio Ponti, and bolts made with brass. Lastly the bathrooms in the ground floor, still authentic, shows on floor matt (satin) black tiles made with black grès, while on the wall, little mosaic tiles coloured pale yellow appear [36]. All ceiling and inside wall are painted with white washing colour [37].

A summa of nice discoveries that confirms at the present how in Italy only a little number of buildings are on service, and are like their original project, with no interior changes, in the respect of the project, thanks to good materials, good ideas and good brain of the people that work into [38].

The feeling that I can have to had visited and every time when I can visit this building is about a great sensation of lightness, like in the reality can be ethereal the messages that greatly marked all the great communication discovery about these last 50 years, or like the landing of a butterfly on a great meadow, far from the great interference, transforms itself this Rai building in “interference”, far from the present time [39].

(... in that case and not casually butterflies have antennas too)


Notes and Bibliographic References

1 - RAI, (Radio Audizioni Italia) – Radiotelevisione italiana - Italian Broadcasting Television.
2 - E.I.A.R. , Ente Italiano per le Audizioni Radiofoniche.
3 - See: ”Laboratorio Sperimentale dell’E.I.A.R. a Sesto Calende” – in “Radiorario” official magazine E.I.A.R., year V, n.33, 11 August 1929, VII – Milan, Corso Italia 1. Rai Way archives. See: Renato Pellizzoni “75 anni una storia per immagini, il Centro di Controllo dalla sua nascita a Sesto Calende nel 1929 ad oggi nella sua sede nel parco di Monza” -  page 10, Rome, mai 2oo4 – Rai Way.
4 - Cfr.: envelope dated September 2nd, 1929, VII°. – prot. N.45400 SB/se – handbook letter about work to do, and letter dated July 1930, prot. EIAR Turin, Via dell’Arsenale, 21, in which technicians are invited to draw graphic about evening radio trasmission on frequence 80 meters. Rai Way archives. 
5 -Rai Way is the owner of RAI’s signal transmission and broadcasting network.
6 - The Control Center in Monza is the only one centre about the Northern and central Italy to take control activities, in cooperation with other control centre in Sorrento from 1967, able to control frequency in the southern Italy.
7 - The East façade have curve ray on plant of m. 24,40. The project year 1953/1954 on direct request from Rai management, asked to the studio Gio Ponti in Milan to put in Monza’s Park a careful building like a “scientific instrument”, a “control machine”, “una macchina di controllo”. See: Antonio Fornaroli, Centro di Controllo RAI a Monza, in Edilizia Moderna, EM n.53, Milan, December 1954, on page 43 and Renato Pellizzoni, cit. on page 70.
Edilizia Moderna EM, designed by the famous Italian graphic designer Albe Steiner, was edited in Macedonio Melloni street, in Milan, n.28, and it was the magazine published by the Società del Linoleum that in the same building in Milan have office.
8 - The Control Center building-villa rises on an institution area of sq.m.7000, used for public use, granted to Italian Broadcasting Television. RAI’s technicians still worked in Monza from February 1954.
9 - As written in the magazine “Radiorario” n.33 – 11 August 1929, starting work in Sesto Calende Control Centre was to report on the state of the Radio station – spreader in the South Europe, and the choose of the place was motivated by the geografic area “far from noise – local reception”, noises that in the early ’50 years became so big to decided to move into the present building-villa in the Monza park. Tanks to no-building law into Park’s area this allow to measure radio waves with no big problems.
10 - The great wheeling antenna m.60 high was built and was at work in 1962. Originally was painted in light grey colour (safety and more mimetic colour in the sky), at now appear colour dark green, legal proposed colour to hide in the bush.
11 - Control Centre RAI in Monza worked in experimental research on DAB system – Digital Audio Broadcasting DAB+/DMB, T-DMB.
12 - During the open day was possible to see in the entry hall building many historical instruments from RAI Television and Radio Museum – Turin, and new experimental instruments built in the Control Center of Monza.
13 - Many new instruments are experimentally made on project in the Control Center of Monza.
14 - In the biography list of projects of Gio Ponti works, years 1953, appear only “project for R.A.I. offices” Milano, maybe undoubtedly about the building Control Center Monza, open in 1954. The article on EM n.53 was signed not by Gio Ponti but by Antonio Fornaroli that maybe worked in office studio directly on this project.
15 - See: original drawn of project in Rai Way archive and in the City hall of Monza, particulary a western drawn on blue-grey paper printed in Edilizia Moderna, EM n.53 cit., on page 45.
16 - I remember the two front wiews deposited in the town hall of Monza, attached to original project, in the Centro di Controllo Rai too.
17 - At the present the bolt windows are in aluminium with tan glasses and sliding windows, replaced few years ago to original windows made by iron bolt painted in light grey with white glass, as usual in the Gio Ponti’s projects of that years. See: picture archives Rai Way, and Renato Pellizzoni, pages 75 - 76.
18 - In Edilizia Moderna, EM53 page 46, the parapet board on East side is related with “black ceramics tiles tesserae”.
19 - The logo RAI, as from the project of 1949 is on the left façade of the main entrance from 1954, as designed by the famous Italian graphic designer Erberto Carboni, designer of the most coordinate imagine for Italian Broadcasting Television (famous too about many factory graphic image). The name is connected to many edition book for ERI (RAI Edition), to exhibition stands, announcements and graphic for television programmes, always in connection with his idea about a cultured graphic comunication, in the respect of the intelligences and sensitiveness. The RAI logo was shown in 1953, elaborated by Erberto Carboni, with the little point on “ i ” alphabet letter of Rai like the pupil of an eye, this was in the entrance of the Rai Pavilion in the International industrial fair in Milan.
20 - Elettronica e telecomunicazioni, by RAI and STET, ERI editor, year XXI, n.5 – 1972.
21 - From an accurate wiew, comparated with the few colored pictures of that time, often retouched, in the Camera Color picture edited on Edilizia Moderna, EM53 1954, on page 47, in red colour appear only the handrail of external stair, the iron rim under the front windows and the rim of the shed. In a next picture on cover front page of the magazine “Elettronica e telecomunicazioni” year 1972, all the metallic elements appear painted in red, as in 1954 Antonio Fornaroli described in Edilizia Moderna :“The rim is in plate, painted in red colour as all the metallics parts”. The finishing with red paint of all metallics elements on the façade, made after a careful choose by Gio Ponti with many test painted directly on the façade, must more dated this building, marking it more personally to ’50 years, instead the present colouring, more neutral, hide the real age of this building villa.
22 - See the buildings built for Politecnico di Milano, used by Architecture and Engineering courses, placed in street via Bonardi to via Ampere, and via Bonardi to via Ponzio in Milan.
23 - In Edilizia Moderna, EM53 december 1954, page 45, the South front as the present, has written: southeast façade by “Fulget mosaic”, never realized. The project façade on western side, where was the flat of the director and the flat of the guardian, shows an indefinable rectangular element with 14 rings on seven level, maybe a wall never built.
24 - In Rai Way archives picture, appear name “Torretta OM” as Medium Waves MW control tower and measure electro-magnetic fields – in the Monza Control Center.
25 - The little tower is completely built and made by wood, and about technical reasons has no metallic parts and elements. Nails are made of wood as all joint connection as the sliding windows. Light sistem too is natural, with no electrical elements; light is diffused by reflection from a conic reflector made by opalin white glass that receive natural light and diffusing it into the space. The feel visiting this tower, is like to imagine to stay in a ship naval conning tower, put over the deck of a transatlantic ship. Just in that years Gio Ponti  designed and had projected too many first class interior for italian shipping line, for famous italian transatlantic in cooperation with furniture factory.
26 - The originally deck had little canalization and over this was built a floating floor.
27 - The circular cylindrical element of the winding staircase, at the present as in the original, are painted in light grey color, as appear in the black & white 1954 picture, where appear more dark, and too in the next coloured picture dated 1964. The colour maybe was the same of the upright of interior parapet of the stairs. See particularly: “Notizie Rai” monthly magazine for radio and TV sellers – n.9 year IV september 1964, pages 20 to 21. See too: Ing Giampiero Galligioni “Il Centro di Controllo della Rai a Monza” in Elettronica – Edizioni Radio Italiana – Anno III – September - October 1954  N.°5 – page 208, picture 10; and Renato Pellizzoni, 75 anni una storia per immagini 1929-2004 – Rai Way, cit..
28 - The same solution about the top polishing parapet, is possibile to see in the Architecture Faculty of Politecnico di Milano, built on Gio Ponti’s design, on the great staircase from entrance hall on Bonardi street near central faculty Library to the first floor..
29 - Perfect is the care of this tower and the only one change is the dark brown color on external framework respect the original white colour of the external little tower
 30 - The Polar reference show bearing for antennas.
 31 - Swinging lamps and wall-lamps are all (like) Fontana Arte production, model year 1937, all original, and all Incandescent lamps to have not noise on research work of the Center. Rai Way archives and see: Gio Ponti 1891>1979 from the Human-Scale to the Post-Modernism, page 83, picture n.38, the Seibu Museum of Art Tokio, 1986.
32 - At the moment many original ’50 furniture are still in the Control Center of Monza designed by Gio Ponti, as office furniture all in polished oak made, writing-desk, chair and arm-chair, chair type mod.646 called “Leggera” or  “Tipo chair” (Type Chair), chairs type mod.602 both in the more rare exceptional and spartan model made in oak wood and seat and back in curved plywood, and the same model (more famous) with seat and back stuffed covered by artificial leather. The famous chair mod.602 made by Cassina (in the factory of Meda in Northern area of Milan) from 1950 was proposed too in rosewood (palisander) with stuffed seat and back often with ornaments by famous designer Piero Fornasetti, as a famous version called “Butterfly” from the design on the silk stuff used.
33 - The white marble used here, come from catalogue of the Italian National Company “Montecatini” about that Gio Ponti designed two palace in Milan – in street via Turati and via della Moscova. Intersting is to compare the 1954 – 1955 hand made floor design of  the hall of Villa Planchart in Caracas, Venezuela, designed by Gio Ponti too in 1953-1960.
34 - Sometime is still on place the original Pirelli rubber floor color light grey with white stripes, or where modified, are on floor great rubber tiles sand-yellow colour.
35 - The doors with squared window, like a ship’s door, are like the same present in the R.A.I. TV Studios in the Production Center in Milan, Corso Sempione.
36 - The same little mosaics tiles pale-yellow (RAL code 1015) are still present on the continue parapet made by iron concrete in the main staircase of the E.I.A.R. now RAI Palace built on 1939-1940 in Milan, on design of the same Gio Ponti with Antonio Fornaroli and Eugenio Soncini in cooperation with the enginering Nino Bertolaia.
37 - The pale yellow mosaic tiles are on 78 horizontal files, placed before the black grès floor. Yellow and black, recurrent in the project and design ornaments of Gio Ponti in that age, are connected to white colour of wall and ceiling and to the light grey of the windows.
38 - The Rai’s palace in Milan too (built in 1939-1940) has windows on the same lined up with the façade, tipical of Gio Ponti’s exterior projects, but is more on the interior studying that is possible to see the Gio Ponti idea, more by the material used, like rubber floor (linoleum), little mosaic tesserae tiles, iron window, tempered glass and the high skirting board in alignment with the interior wall.
39 - Before to close this research, I found on Edilizia Moderna EM53 - December 1954 - the description of the new building of Monza that Engineer Antonio Fornaroli by Studio Gio Ponti gave: “Model (expression) of high refinate scientific works, landed more than built in the green, this building-villa you can see trough the trees of the Monza Park with no disturb for the landscape, the Rai Control Center, a low building, with one floor only, that open itself with a great  semi circular windows front to the meadows of the Mirabellino”.  (Mirabellino is a great open field into the royal park). The great lightness, confirm my first feeling all time i can see this building-villa, also after more than 50 years. This building thanks to the great windows front that reflex the park around, in a reflex game, play with the external areas with a great cooperation to the artificial landscape of the (ex Royal) park of Monza. I remember that in area of Monza Park live too the Monza Circuit from 1922 – Autodromo Nazionale di Monza and Golf Club Milan with some golf fields.

I particularly thank the Direction of Monza RAI Contol Center – Dott. Ing. Aldo Scotti and Dott. Ing. Giuseppina Moretti, who allowed me to visit and to study about architectural aspects of this building; Mr. Giancarlo Zappa, Mr. Renato Pellizzoni, Mr. Carlo Confalonieri and all staff and technicians on service in Rai Way - Rai Control Center in Monza about all disponibility, historic notice and care about this precious building.

Reference According to APA Style, 5th edition:
Galbiati, M. ; (2008) Rai Way, Gio Ponti, Antennas & Butterflies. The RAI – Italian Broadcasting Television Control Center in Monza 1954–2004. Convergências - Revista de Investigação e Ensino das Artes , VOL I (2) Retrieved from journal URL: http://convergencias.ipcb.pt