The Future of the Present: why and how to research trends

O Futuro do Presente: porquê e como pesquisar tendências

Rech, S. Campos, A.

UDESC - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
UFSC - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina

Retirado de: http://convergencias.esart.ipcb.pt
RESUMO: Entender as mudanças freqüentes no movimento do sistema de moda, está ocupando mais espaço na agenda do pesquisador, designer e comerciante. A pesquisa de tendências sociais e culturais é uma maneira muito eficiente de estudar o futuro como uma forma de minimizar riscos relacionados ao tempo desconhecido. O projeto de pesquisa "O futuro do presente: observação espacial, análise e interpretação de signos", utiliza um método específico de estudo de signos emergentes e visa identificar o espírito dos tempos (zeitgeist) e traduzi-lo, então, em curto e médio período Tendências para a indústria da moda.
 
PALAVRAS-CHAVE: observação e análise, tendências, moda
 
ABSTRACT: Understanding frequent changes in the fashion system movement, is occupying more space in the researcher, designer and marketer’s agenda. The research of social and cultural trends is a very efficient manner to study the future as a way of minimizing risks related to the unknown time. The research project ‘The future of the present: space observation, analysis and interpretation of signs’, uses a specific method of studying emerging signs and aims to identify the spirit of times (zeitgeist) and translate it, then, into short and medium period trends for the fashion industry. 
 
KEYWORDS: observation and analysis, trends, fashion.

1. Introduction

 The use of artifices such as fashion trends, that reverberates the spirit of times (zeitgeist) [1], seems to be a strategy used by companies that aim to interpret and predict consumer’ aspirations and commercial market qualities in a specific determined future. The monitoring activities of fashion research analyze information from distinct areas. Areas such as economy, politics, sociology, science and technology help forecasters formulate prognostics presented as trends (Feghali, 2001).
Companies in the design market are frequently, investing more of their profits in a kind of insurance against failure. Throughout the research of emerging signs, from many different perspectives, companies guarantee the knowledge of relevant information to marketing and product development departments. The attainment and interpretation of pulses in the spirit of times (zeitgeist) must be understood as the translation of a cultural language in a very specific moment, an investigator’s report about a time yet to come.

 

1.1 Fashion

Fashion does not assume only one meaning. The colloquial meaning of fashion is related to constant variations in clothing items, or to textile products with a planned obsolescence. Scholars of Business Administration and Production Engineering fields see fashion as variable seasonal modifications of clothes and accessories, comprehending the entire textile and manufacturing industries. According to Rech (2002), fashion comprehends sociological, psychological and aesthetic changes intrinsic in architecture, visual arts, music, religion, politics, literature, philosophical perspective, decoration and vestment” [2].
Cidreira agrees with Lipovestky stating that the fashion system “is reencountered in many levels, but it is particularly in clothing that it is noticed with such vigor and transparency” (2005) [3]. Kamakura understands that Fashion does not only relate to clothing items, but also to invisible elements that are represented by that clothing and in which human beings aggregated in pieces of fabric. Consequently, fashion system which is formed by complex gears that connect social, anthropological, sociological, historic and economic logics, is far from being a shallow, frivolous or trifling area of studies.
 

1.2 Understanding the complexity of fashion as a system

The fashion system overwhelms us each day with an avalanche of information, images, ideas, trends, and according to Guillaume (2005) becomes a relevant part of our identity process constitution and a way of communication. The logic of consumerism, that has its anchors in the same structure pillars of fashion ethos[4], is broadly being accepted, and as Lipovetsky sustains, the society’s domination over the individual is infinitely bigger than ever and novelty is being easily accepted.
Needs and wishes of human beings inside the capitalist culture are instigated through constant media appeal and the interests of ‘cultural industry’[5]. According to Bliss (1916) in Lynch’s book (2007), “one of the primary motives for wearing clothes is to address a fundamental feeling of incompleteness … [and] dissatisfaction with the self as it is” (p.13). Taking this into account, it is possible to notice our search for satisfaction and acceptance. So, the results of prospective research industries claim to foresee consumers’ aspirations and move against the cultural tendencies into the fashion system, always aiming its hegemony and profiting.
The ideas of seduction and innovation changed focus of modern society and became more important than it was supposed to be. Fashion connects the pleasure of seeing and being seen. It becomes a stage for narcissism’s perfect reproduction.  To Lipovetsky (1997) [6] fashion has aestheticized and individualized human vanity. Fashion turned superficial values into a salvation path to humankind; a purpose for existence.

 

1.3 Trends

According to Caldas (2004) [7] the concept of trend has generalized in contemporary society, it has been constructed based on the ideas of movement, change, future’s representation, evolution and quantitative criteria.  Back (2008) states that research trends tend to notice influence forces inside a context and read its evolution to comprehend future consequences. From the Latin tendentia means to have a tendency, “an inclination or predisposition to do something, or to a particular characteristic or a particular kind of thought or action” [8]. Trends are simply possible and plausible directions to a specific time. In that way trends function as a mirror of the future, mirror in which actual signals reflect projections pointing to a time that is about to come.
Palomino (2003) considers trends as a common denominator in fashion. According to the author trends are at the starting point of the textile engine, at the industries responsible for producing threads and fibers to the clothing market. She believes that dressing trends are specified through colors and shapes that are to be, or not, followed by designers. To the Trendwatching [9] group trend is a manifestation of something that is innovatively instigating or serving consumer’s needs, wishes and values. The deepest wishes remain mostly the same, but the behavior of a society and the ways of satisfying those wishes are constantly moving.
Differently than Palomino, we believe that trends are not necessarily to be communicated through the imposition of industry about colors, shapes and materials. We believe that trends are nothing more than observed and analyzed signals that can guide us to the unknown future. We judge more relevant the presentation of trends in a more conceptual way, through texts and iconographic plates. That means, the boundaries are more flexible and the information allows interpretation and adaptation according to the target-public. This manner of communicating trends allows the addition of subjectivity in the designs and this subjectivity belongs to designer and to the final user.  

 

1.4 The importance of trends as moving forces in the fashion system

Taking into account the economic explanation for the changing phenomenon of fashion novelty, some may believe that fashion is the result of a conspiracy of a select group of fashion designers and companies, making consumers always vulnerable to new wishes and aiming to fulfill those needs throughout consuming. It may be said that nowadays the street expresses incredible creative and many of main fashion trends have been explored after a primary observation of society and the world around us.
Popcorn and Marigold state that the seeds are everywhere – it only takes opening up your eyes and observing. The seeds are in restaurants and bars, clubs, streets, in the music we listen to, in the magazines we read, in the TV shows we watch. Just pay attention to what the government tells us and what the market sells us.
The influences observed and analyzed by trend forecasters are signs, translated into concepts. These concepts connected to other concepts and create a map. This map works as a kind of mirror to a certain age. In that way, trends are expressions of the spirit of times announcing a future that is about to come. Taking this into consideration, the study and analysis of social phenomena captured in the streets and disseminated by the media makes possible to prospect social trends, which, will be later on translated in fashion trends.

 

2. Methods

It may be said that the observation, analysis and interpretation of signs are responsible for discovering the desires and wishes of the consumer population. However, in order to analyze these signs it is necessary to create a certain distance, claiming to see social practices in the exact way they present themselves. So, the use of a scientific-based method becomes imperative, aiming the organization, validity and supposed impartiality of the collected information.
The Internet was chosen as an auxiliary tool for trends’ prospection. From the popular fashion specialized sites, to pages of distinct brands and creators, there is an enormous quantity of material that allow investigators to analyze trends. As much in company websites as in blogs, personal pages or news sites, through the Internet  information spreads fast, making trend forecasting quicker, cheaper, more consistent, democratic and globalized.
The research group ‘The future of the present: space of observation, analysis and interpretation of signs’  use a method in which the first step to fashion trends forecasting is to identify influences of a specific focus group. The group has a wide and flexible focus in order to attend the possible interests of the Art Center (CEART) students at the Santa Catarina State University (UDESC) – Brazil. Thus, we considered relevant the accomplishment of specific research and analysis in the following influence areas: macro-trends, behavior, technologies and sectors of reference (media and market).


2.1 The approximation of fashion and social sciences

The role of trends in fashion can be analyzed in many aspects: from historical or economical aspects, through a marketing perspective up to even artistic approaches.  The dialog with Social Sciences, though, seems more than necessary.  The search of communication to this area of knowledge (human and social sciences) reflects in the prospect forecasting method. The method consists basically in noticing signal emitted by regular people in daily activities. Preciosa (2005) [10] states that all of us manifest a vision of the world and most of the time, we do not even notice the signals we emit.
From an anthropological perspective, dress and appearance, and fashion trends in particular, are visible embodiments of cultural systems and meanings. How we construct ourselves expresses a world view and a value system that is key to understanding within a distinct milieu and time period (Lynch& Strauss, 2007, p.39).
The approximation with sociology and anthropology consists in using a complex and scientific method. This method makes possible the collection and analysis of signs sent by the contemporary society as a way of minimizing mistakes and errors in a tomorrow’s report. To collect, map, classify, identify, describe and follow the changes of the macro-trends, values and behaviors becomes a manner of comprehend and accumulate knowledge of the complexity of today’s culture (Caldas, 2004) [11].
The constant and transversal following of all sectors of society’s influences to prospect trends is not an easy essay. Preciosa (2005) emphasizes that is easier to copy uncomplicated ways of researching and living, ways that fake the uncomfortableness. In the end, the only thing uncomplicated to us is make our senses empty, annul our subjectivity. We must be aware that the linear logic is not the only possible path. In fact, the complex study of interaction seems much more plausible to sociological studies.

 

2.2 Complexity theory

The history of the world and occidental thinking was commanded by a disjunctional, separational paradigm. We have separated the spirit from the mass, philosophy from science; we have separated the particular knowledge of literature and music from the knowledge from scientific research (Morin, 2006) [12]. The division of subjects of study in today’s educational system makes almost impossible to learn what is the ‘fabric all together’, as Edgar Morin says. When we get used to segmentation of the knowledge it becomes more difficult to understand what is complex.
Mann (1979), in the classic Métodos de Investigação Sociológica [13] points out that the problem of the sociologist is to have to deal with data that has a tendency of messing with the conscience in an eminent complex way. Therefore, the sociological research, in its studies of human interactions and relations and its consequences, implies a complex and systemic thinking process, proposed by Morin.
Complexity is the quality of the complex. It signifies something that embraces many elements or many parts. Complexity theory sustains that the whole is a complex unity, since it cannot be reduce by a simple addition of the elements that constitute the parts. It is much more than that, because each part presents its specificities and, interacting with one another, modifies other parts as well as the whole (Petraglia, 1995) [14].
Not only the fashion system, as well as the nature, physics and biological systems, exhibit a non-linear pattern. A simple attraction that connects certain points of instability in a system that would at first be seen as a very small dynamic can generate huge consequences. Systems are a complex grouping of complex elements, where many independent agents interact in many complex ways. The expected result of the prospective trend forecasting through Complexity Theory’s point of view is not to confirm only one possible direction to be followed in the future, in a structuralized way, but, in opposition, to present a range of plausible options to the future.

 

2.3 Grounded theory

Grounded theory is a type of interpretive research considered a variant inside symbolic interaction. It relates to the knowledge of perception of meanings between situations, objects and actions.  This approach considers society as a complex entity composed by individuals and groups, having as base the sharing of signs and meanings through comprehension and common expectations. Parting from this methodological premise, the investigator studies many processes happening in the social stage, creating a series of hypothesis that connected to one another may explain the phenomenon.
Combining intuitive and deductive approaches, the grounded theory consists in a constant comparison method (Soneira, 2007). Using such method, the investigator collects, codifies and analyses data in a simultaneous manner. These tasks do not occur in a successive way, but simultaneous.  And they are not directed to verifying theories, but demonstrating their plausibility. This procedure embraces data collection, codification and, later, theory delimitation for results communication. To Mann (1979) any man that classifies facts and sees their mutual relations is applying the scientific method.
The utilization of an organized scientific method avoids us from falling into traps during the collection and analysis of data. One of the trickiest risks is allowing that our own selectivity of observation will vary according to what we judge relevant or interesting, or the research, in that exact moment. When that happens, we tend to ignore many varieties and concepts that could be extremely important to the final result of the study in its complex context. Another recurrent mistake of qualitative researches made without applying a scientific methodology may be considering our own opinions as conclusion, ignoring verifying tasks and collecting signals in a very selective way, searching for signs that are favorable to our values and beliefs, and ignoring other signals that may point to divergent directions. The theory delimitation must be well structured and must conclude a study only based on convincing and fundamental concepts. The execution of the research and data analysis in group is considered  very enrichening not only for dissolving personal interest of a certain investigator, but also for generating complementary conclusions about diverse points of view parting from the same object.

 

3. Results - Our researching method

We see that the observation, analysis and interpretation of signs orientate the great sectors of industry about wishes and needs of the consumering crowds. However, to analyze them it is necessary to create a certain distance, focusing in considering such practices as they really are. In that way we avoid mistakes and common errors, already specified in this present paper. According to that idea, it becomes imperative the use of a specific complex method. The method envisions the organization, validity and a supposed impartiality of collected information. Through the study and examination of social phenomena, that have the streets as provenance and the media as their disseminator, it becomes possible the forecasting of social trends.
Parting from ideas of Faith Popcorn, director of the American institute of research Brain Reserve, the trends we aim to identify and disseminate are not fads. We propose ourselves to communicate concepts, causes that incite innovation and creativity. “Trend watching is more than spotting the next color, fabric or designer (…) the consumer arena is infinitely more complicated than that. (…) A trend is a manifestation of something that has unlocked or newly serviced a consumer need, desire, want or value”[15]. We recommend ideas that represent the engine of primordial human needs and aspirations. Trend forecasting makes us question the world at all times; we observe the world around us with an open mind, always asking ourselves ‘why are we seeing this? What has it effect on?’. We try to track routes of how the future should be and get ready for what is yet to come. The study of future trends allows us to identify forces gaining space and importance inside our culture.
The use of our own methodology based on Theory of Complexity and adapted from Grounded Theory permit us to enter the field of scientific research through the studwork of social trends. Considering the internet a network of people, not computers, the research through websites and blogs makes possible the creation of contemporary ethnographies. Those society’s ethnographies helps us understand the culture we live in and project how the scenario of a future time will be like.
The conceptual model of forecasting proposes researching society through four main influences. Such as: macro-trends, behavior, sectors of reference (industry and media). It is throughout these influences that the investigation occurs, following four principal steps: the preparation, the collection of data, the analysis or codifications of data and the delimitation of theories. As one can see in the following image 1.

 

 

Fig. 1 – Conceptual Model of Forecasting

 

 

3.1 Observation

Soneira in Estrategias de Investigacion Cualitativa [16] emphasizes that Grounded Theory is based mainly on interviews as an instrument of data collection and it does not exclude other techniques. In the specific case of trend spotting for fashion and design industries it becomes very relevant the observation of signals. Marie Ruckie, director of the Berçot Institute in Paris affirms that to forecast trends is essential that we stimulate our capacity to look around us and observe specially the behavior of people (Mendonça, 1987).
We all observe, but we rarely observe systematically (Mann, 1979). Researching involves a certain type of perception and construction of the eye, in order to comprehend the social context, and also the capacity of making the common seem different, creating reflections about the context, about the values that it characterizes, about the wishes that are often in accordance, negotiation and creation for those who in that context live (Schirmer, 2007).
The observation of the social investigator implies dedication and seriousness. When we deal with systematic observation it is necessary to concentrate in all details in order not to let any space for minor mistakes or non-fundamental guessing. Therefore, observations must be registered as field notes in a notebook called field diary. To some designers, especially in fashion, this notebook is often referred to as a sketch-book, or notebook of ideas. This notebook also is used to keep images, pictures, texts, graphics, diagrams, illustrations and schemes. All that information will later help in the process analysis and also serve as examples for the communication of trends. The field diary is a library of signs and references, organized chronologically and through which is possible to determinate and examine the spirit of times (zeitgeist) in relation to an specific influence (macro-trends, behavior or sectors of reference).

 

3.2 Interpretation

After the data collection through observation it is time to start the data codification. The first step of the codification process is known as open-codification. The open-codification consists in analyze the more important concepts from the collected material (Soneira, 2007). It is necessary to read and read, exhaustively all the collected material, in order to understand the impulses and wishes hidden behind each information. This material and concepts are what will give the nomenclature, examples and foundation to the enquirers to justify their conclusions. The concepts examined in this moment will help the researchers to write texts and create visual panels to communicate trends, in that way; they serve also as tools for further dissemination and explanation of trends.
After that first step, we start the axial-codification. This second stage of codification occurs usually in meetings; therefore, this second step of analysis is hold as a group activity. During the axial-codification the researchers gather all the information they have collected in a different mode. Varying according to the relations between the concepts examined during open-codification, we create a textual panel to represent all the found concepts, their influences, their relations, their connection’s strength and their importance in the complex case.
Finally, the selective-codification is characterized by the process of selecting one central category. From the moment that category is found, all the left concepts are rearranged in order to relate (or not) to that specific and central category. The main idea of this stage of analysis is to organize and exam the collected concepts, generating propositions and hypothesis. These hypotheses are the materials and the tools to construct a plausible theory for the prospection of future scenarios.

 

3.3 Delimitation of a theory

The delimitation of the theory consists in the evaluation of hypothesis, though the comparison process. To delimitate a theory we compare similarities and differences between the concepts, and how strong are the connections between the central idea and the rest of the concepts. It is a continuity of selective-codification in which  occurs the reduction of categories focusing in the central one. The concept will become the theory solution after evaluating the relevance and consistence of his centralism. In order to help determining the validity of the central concept, Strauss quoted by Soneira (2007) offers a list of criteria used for the qualification of a concept in order to be elected as the one which bests delimitate the theory and answers the problem:
a) It must be central, so all other principal categories may relate to this one;
b) Must appear with frequency in data. Which means that in all, or almost all cases there are indicators that point to this concept;
c) The explanation that is developed by the relation of the categories is logical and consistent, and data is not forced;
d) The name of the sentence used to describe the central category should be brief enough to be investigated in other substantial areas, that approach a more substantial theory of society;
e) As the concept refines analytically, by their integration with other concepts the theory grows in depth and explanative power;
f) The concept explains the variations, as well as the central theme. This means that when the conditions vary, the explanation maintains but the manner in which a phenomenon is expressed may present variation.
To research using Grounded Theory is complex. The project is absorbing, the insights may appear at any time and the mistakes are very frequent to beginners. Bandeira-de-Mello (2006) points out the characteristics of a good theory: “it should be clear enough to represent the vision of the subject’s world, the method of research should be detailed and accord to the requisite of constant comparison method”[17]. Consequently, the experience of the participants of the research, as investigators, minimizes minor errors and mistakes and conducts to a trajectory enlighten by knowledge and maturation.

 

4. Conclusions

In the limited space of this short paper, we tried to show the needed approximation between trend researching and sociological researching methods. As we enter the social and human sciences, a conceptual model for trend researching was developed and applied by the research group The Future of the Present: space of observation, analysis and interpretation of signs. The discussed model aims to allow us to propose valid and plausible projections based on social facts observed and examined through a complex scientific method, suggesting the validation of delimitated and concluded hypothesis.
It is remarkable that trend researching for further product orientation is often performed in session of merely ‘copy and paste’ from content of designer’s websites. Such method results only in homogeneous, serialized and reproducible ways. Exempt of subjective creativity, many small companies end up repeating patterns and languages to mainly superficial products. This formula seems, through our point of view, very threatening to micro and small companies that nullify their creativity fearing being swallowed by a market known for its fierceness and competition. Schirmer (2007) says that those companies, obviously, anxious for space in the globalized market, tend to lose their track.
Innovating requires to be bold, to dare, instead of coping and faking subjectivity and creativity (Preciosa, 2005). Preciosa discusses the ruptures, transformations that will certainly occur if we are engaged to the movement that life produces around us. Therefore, it seems more interesting the use of a qualitative research in the analysis of how people express themselves, behave, live and communicate, in their own ways. Through the internet it is possible to monitor blogs and websites of comportment and innovation. Thus, the data analysis which aims to delimitate wishes and desires of consumer has the finality of offering them products and services that, even for a little while, satisfy their real needs and not impoverish them of their own subjectivity.
By communicating trends as concepts emerging from the social scene, it is intended to make students of the Art Center [18] aware of a critical way of thinking towards the globalizing phenomenon that compromises the subjective creativity (Strada, 2008). Therefore, it becomes essential the recognition of the human as primordial capital for designers that care about the future.

 

Notes

[1] Zeitgeist is a German word that translated would mean the spirit of times, spirit of an age, Zeitgeist is the general cultural, intellectual, ethical, spiritual, and/or political climate within a nation or even specific groups, along with the general ambience, morals, and sociocultural direction or mood of an era (similar to the English word mainstream or trend).
[2] This transcript has been translated from Portuguese by the authors of this paper. The original excerpt can be found in: Rech, S R.(2002). Moda: por um fio de qualidade. Florianópolis: Editora da UDESC.  “a moda compreende mudanças sociológicas, psicológicas e estéticas intrínsecas à arquitetura, às artes visuais, à música, à religião, à política, à literatura, à perspectiva filosófica, à decoração e ao vestuário”. (p. 29)
[3] This transcript has been translated from Portuguese by the authors of this paper. The original words found in: Cidreira, R. P.(2005). Os sentidos da moda: vestuário, comunicação e cultura. São Paulo: Annablume. are: o Sistema de Moda “é reencontrado em diversos níveis, mas é particularmente no vestuário que ele se exerce com maior vigor e transparência”. (p. 44)
[4] To Sant’Anna “fashion is the ethos of modern and individualized societies, that, constituted as significant, articulates the relations between social subjects based on appearance and that installs the new as category of hierarchy of meanings”.  Translated from Portuguese by the authors of this paper. The original words found in: Sant’anna, M. R.(2007). Teoria de moda: Sociedade, imagem e consumo. Barueri, SP: Estação das Letras Editora. are: “ethos das sociedades modernas e individualistas que, constituído em significante, articula as relações entre os sujeitos sociais a partir da aparência e instaura o novo como categoria de hierarquização dos significados. (p. 88)
[5] Cultural industries (sometimes also known as "creative industries") combine the creation, production, and distribution of goods and services that are cultural in nature and usually protected by intellectual property rights.
[6] Lipovetsky, G.(1999). O império do efêmero. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras.
[7] This excerpt has been translated from Portuguese by the authors of this paper. The original words found in: Caldas,D.(2004). Observatório de sinais – Teoria e prática da pesquisa de tendências. Rio de Janeiro: Senac.  are: “o conceito de tendência que se generalizou na sociedade contemporânea foi construído com base nas idéias de movimento, mudança, representação de futuro, evolução, e sobre critérios quantitativos”. (p. 22)
[8] The New Penguin English Dictionary edited by Roberts Allen. Published in 2000. Search for tendency.
[9] Trendwatching is one of the world's leading trend firms that scans the globe for emerging consumer trends. Find out more at http://trendwatching.com/
[10] This excerpt has been translated from Portuguese by the authors of this paper. The original words found in: Preciosa, R. (2005). Produção estética: Notas sobre roupas, sujeitos e modos de vida. São Paulo: Ed. Anhembi Morumbi. are: “Todos nós manifestamos uma visão de mundo e na maior parte do tempo, não nos damos conta dos signos que vamos emitindo”. (p. 29)
[11] This transcript has been translated from Portuguese by the authors of this paper. The original words found in: Caldas, D.(2004). Observatório de sinais – teoria e prática da pesquisa de tendências. Rio de Janeiro: Senac. are: “Repertoriar, mapear, classificar. (...) Identificar, descrever e acompanhar as mutações das tendências de fundo, dos valores e dos comportamentos, torna-se uma das formas de conferir sentido e de abarcar a complexidade da cultura contemporânea”. (p. 120)
[12] This transcript has been translated from Portuguese by the authors of this paper. The original words found in: Morin, E. [et al].(2006). Ensaios de complexidade. 4 ed. Porto Alegre: Sulina. are: “A história do mundo e do pensamento ocidentais foi comandada por um paradigma de disjunção, de separação. Separou-se o espírito da matéria, a filosofia da ciência, separou-se o conhecimento particular que vem da literatura e da música, do conhecimento que vem da pesquisa científica”. (p. 17)
[13] Mann, P. H. (1979).Métodos de Investigação Sociológica. 4. Rio de Janeiro: Zahar Editores.
[14] This excerpt has been translated from Portuguese by the authors of this paper. The original words found in: Petraglia, I. C.(1995). Edgar Morin, a educação e a complexidade do ser e do saber. Petrópolis: Vozes. are: “É mais do que isso, pois cada parte apresenta sua especificidade e, em contato com as outras, modificam as partes e também o todo”. (p. 48)
[15] Trendwatching. (2007, September). Top 5 trend watching tips. Retrieved July 08, 2008, from http://www.trendwatching.com/tips
[16] Soneira, A. J. (2007). La "teoría fundamentada en los datos" (grounded theory) de Glasser y Strauss. In I. Gialdino, L. Chernobilsky & V. Béliveau (Ed.), Estrategias de investigación cualitativa. (pp. 153-173). Buenos Aires: Gedisa Editorial.
[17] This excerpt has been translated from Portuguese by the authors of this paper. The original words  in: Godoi, C. K., Bandeira-de-Mello, R. & Silva, A. B. (2006). Pesquisa qualitativa em estudos organizacionais: Paradigmas, estratégias e métodos. São Paulo: Editora Saraiva. are: “deve ter clareza para representar a visão de mundo dos sujeitos, o método de pesquisa deve ser detalhado e deve estar de acordo com o requisito do método das comparações constantes” (p. 257)
[18] Centro de Artes (CEART) da Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC).

 

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Reference According to APA Style, 5th edition:
Rech, S. Campos, A. ; (2010) The Future of the Present: why and how to research trends. Convergências - Revista de Investigação e Ensino das Artes , VOL III (6) Retrieved from journal URL: http://convergencias.ipcb.pt